EARLY ENGLISH KINGS

Updated 21 August 2011.


Contents

Kingdom of East Anglia
Kingdom of Essex
Kingdom of Kent
Kingdom of Mercia
Kingdom of Northumbria and York
South Saxons
Kingdom of Wessex

Link to kings and queens after Edward the Confessor
 

Distribution of Kingdoms

In Anglo-Saxon times around 550-700 the kingdoms of England were distributed thus: Northumbria was divided into the kingdom of Bernicia north of the Tyne and the kingdom of Deira between the Tees and the Ouse. According to several historical maps, the two kingdoms had territories only on the East Coast of England.

South of the Trent the kingdom or area of Lindsay occupied the land between the Humber and the Wash and the western border was the Trent.

The Kingdom of Mercia occupied the midland areas from the Trent to Wales and stretched east over nearly to East Anglia, where - first - the Middle Angles and more easterly the East Angles had their dominions.

From south of the Ouse and the Stour and to the Thames the East Saxons lived. The kingdom of Kent was more or less as today, and west of Kent came the South Saxons and the West Saxons in the kingdom of Wessex.

The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were generally counted to seven, however not necessarily the same seven areas through all the years. As a whole they are called The Heptarchy in ancient literature.
The dominant countries During the period from the Angles, Old Saxons and Jutes invaded and settled in Britain and transformed it into England and unto the Norman invasion in 1066 the dominant power shifted from one country to another several times, and a short overview follows here:

The three main invasion places were the Thames where the Jutes arrived headed by Hengest and his son or grandson Aesc. They established the Kentish kingdom, or Cantwara. Also the Saxons arrived up the Thames and settled in Middlesex, Surrey, Essex and Berkshire.

The Saxons also arrived to the Wash and penetrated the country through the several rivers in the bay. The tribe from Angle came in the way and settled in the Midlands. The Angles also used the Humber as entrance gate and their tribe, the Deirans, from there settled north of the river in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

The more aggressive people, the Mercians, came up the Trent and formed a border state towards the original Celts. Later - about 547 - the Angle Ida landed at Bamborough and formed the kingdom of Bernicia, which his sons extended by defeating the Welsh, i.e. the Britons.

The Saxons who settled in the area today called Wessex proved the most successful and pressed the west border to the Severn. A minor tribe called the Hwicce even settled in Gloucestershire. All over England this invasion subdued all or nearly all traces of both Roman and Celtic culture: languages, customs, religions, and the invaders kept their own barbaric lifestyle.
[9830p168ff]

East Anglia had own kings until 749, when the kingdom was divided and lost its power. In 855 the king was killed by the Danish invaders and in 878 or 880 East Anglia got its first Danish king, Guthrum (a019). East Anglia was conquered by Wessex in 917.

Kent was an independent kingdom, but king Edbert (k016) was deposed by the Mercian king Cenwulf (m012) in 798 and the country was ruled by Mercians until Wessex united Kent and Wessex in 825 or 827.

Mercia was founded in 626 and came under Northumbrian sovereignty from 655 to 658. The Mercian area was again independent to 874, when king Burgred (m018) was expelled by the Danes, and puppet rulers were appointed by the Danish. However already in 757 king Offa (m010) was called » the first King of the English«. Mercia united with Wessex in 918 or 919.

Northumbria was from time to time divided into the two kingdoms of Bernicia to the north and Deira to the south. In some periods of time the two kingdom were united or at least shared a king. The first king for the united kingdoms was Ethelfrith (n04) in 592 to 617, but also Oswald (n08) and Oswy (n09) and later kings from 634 to the Danes arrived in 867 and set their puppet king up ruled both kingdoms. From 927 Northumbria became united with Wessex under the same ruler.

From 867 or 875 the Danes formed the kingdom of York. However in 900 the Danes king received Ethelwald of Wessex (y03) as their ruler and from then on the English rulers also played a decisive part in the Danelaw areas.

Wessex was through all the years from 519 to 925 a powerful state and the Wessex kings several times ruled over the adjoining countries.
[7933p485ff]
b = brother of; bs = brother's son; d = daughter of; m(1) = first married to; s = son of;
ss = grandson of; † = died; ‡ = buried.
 

Kingdom of East Anglia

No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
a00 - Wehha;

child :
1.   Wuffa (a01);
a01 -578 Wuffa;

s(a00); † 578;

child :
1.   Tytila (a02);
a02 578-599 Tytila = Tyttla;
s(a01); † 599;

children :
1.   Redwald; (a03);
2.   Eni; (a06a);
a03 600-616
or
599-624
Redwald = Raedwald;
s(a02); † 624 or 625; ‡ possibly buried in Sutton Hoo;
[10585 p.3f]

children :
1.   Sigbert; (a05);
2.   Earpwald; (a04);
3.   Raegenhere; † 616 or 617;
a04 616-627
or
624-627
Earpwald = Erpwald = Eorpwald;
s(a03); † 627;
a05 630-644
or
630-636
Sigebert of East Anglia = Sigbert;
s(a03); b (a04); † 636
[9090 p.171]
According to [6696] p. 122 Sigebert and Ecric (a06) were killed in 636 or 637 by Penda (m02);
a06a - Eni;
s(a02);

children :
1.   Anna; (a07);
2.   Ethelhere; (a08);
3.   Ethelwald; (a09);

According to [6696] p. 122 Eni's sons were:
children :
1.   Ecric (a06);
2.   Anna (a07);
a06 -644
or
-636
Ecgric = Aecgric = Ecric;
s(a06a); cousin to (a05); Killed together with Sigebert by Mercian King Penda (m02) ca. 644.
According to [6696] p. 122 Sigebert and Ecric (a06) were killed in 636 or 637 by Penda (m02);
a07 636-654 Anna of East Anglia;
s(a06a); bs(a01); Anna was a male name before Christianity became established.
Killed by Penda (m02);

Bertha;
children :
1.   Sexburh; † 709 c.
   m Earconbert of Kent (k07);
2.   Etheldreda; † 679;
   m(1) Tondberht;
   m(2) Egfrid of Northumbria (n10);
3.   Ethelburga; † 664;
4.   Withburga; † 743;
a08 654-654 Ethelhere;
s(a06a); b (a07);

Hereswith;
child :
1.   Aldwulf; (a010);
a09 654-664 Ethelwald = Ethelwold;
s(a06a); b(a07);
a010 664-713 Aldwulf;
s (a08)??;

child :
1.   Alfwld; (a011);
a011 713-749 Alfwold = Elfwald = Ælfwald;
s (a010);
a012 749-? Beorna;
Ruled jointly with Hun and Beonna;
a013 ?-? Ethelred;

child :
1.   Ethelbert; (a014);
a014 ?-794 Ethelbert of East Anglia;
s (a013);
a015 796-800 or
819-828
Eadwald;
?
a016 828-837 Athelstan;
?
a017 837-850 Ethelweard;
?
a018 855-869 Edmund of East Anglia;
He was killed by the Danes 20/11 869;
a019 880-890 Guthrun = Guthrum;
He was the first Danish king;

child :
1.   Eric (a020);
a020 890-902 Eric of East Anglia;
s (a019);


King Edward of Wessex (w024) conquered East Anglia in 917 and
united the kingdoms of East Anglia and Wessex.
 



No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
e00 ?-600 Sledda Saebert;
King of Essex;

Ricula; m; d Eormanric (K04);
children :
1.   Saebert; (e01);
2.   Sexbald;
   who got:
   a) Sigbert II; (e05);
   b) Swidhelm;
e01 600-616
or
600-617
Saebert = Saeberth = Sabert;
s of Sledd & Ricula, sister to Æthelbert of Kent (k05);

children :
1.   Sexred; (e02);
2.   Saeward; (e03);
e02 616-617 Sexred;
s (e01);
Joint king with Seaward (e03);

child :
1.   Sebbe = Sebbi son or grandson (e08);
e03 616-617 Saeward;
s (e01);

children :
1.   Sigebert; (e04);
2.   Sebbi;
   who got:
   a) Sighard;
   b) Swefred;
e04 617-653 Sigebert of Essex = Sigebert Parvus = Sigbert I;
s (e03);
Baptized 653 [9090 p.172]

child :
1.   Sighere; (e07);
e05 653-664 Sigebert II of Essex;
s Sigibald; possibly the son of Sexbald (e00-2-a);

child :
1.   Saelred; (e012);
e06 653-664 Swithelm;
s Seaxbald;
e07 664-680 Sighere;
s (e04);

child :
1.   Offa; (e011);
e08 664-694 Sebbe;
s or gs (e02);

children :
1.   Sigeheard; (e09);
2.   Swaefred; (e010);
e09 694-? Sigeheard;
s (e08);
Joint king with (e010);
e010 694-709 Swaefred;
s (e08);
Joint king with (e09);
e011 ?-709 Offa;
s (e07);
e012 709-746 Saelred;
s (e05);

child :
1.   Sigeric of Essex (e014);
e013 746-? Switherd;
related to (e08);
e014 ?-799 Sigeric of Essex;
s (e012);

child :
1.   Sigered; (e015);
e015 799-825 Sigered;
s (e014);



In 825 East Saxon submitted to Wessex.
 



 

Kingdom of Kent


 
No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
k01 450-? Hengest = Hengist = Hencgest and Horsa;
 
k02 488-? Oisc = Oeric;
s or gs (k01);

child :
1.   Octa; (k03);
k03 512-520c Octa;
s or gs (k02);

child :
1.   Eormanric; (k04);
k04 520c-560 Eormanric = Eormenric = Irminric;
s (k03);

children :
1.   Ethelbert I; (k05);
2.   Ricula;
   m Sledd of Essex (e00);
k05 560-616 Ethelbert I of Kent;
s (k04); he was the first Christian king of Kent and received Augustin in 597;

Bertha; d Charibert I of Neustria;
children :
1.   Eadbald; (k06);
2.   Æthelberg; m King Edwin of Northumbria (n05), his m(2);
k06 616-640 Eadbald = Edbald;
s (k05);

Emma; a Franconian princess;
children :
1.   Earconbert; (k07);
2.   Eormenred; m Oslava;
k07 640-664 Earconbert = Erconbert;
s (k06);

Sexburh = Sexburga; † 06/07 699; d King Anna of East Anglia (a07);
Became a nun at Sheppey when widowed, Abbess of Ely from 679 after sister's death (n10);
children :
1.   Egbert I; (k08);
2.   Hlothere; (k09);
3.   Eorcongola = Eorcongota = Erkengota; became a nun at Faremoutiers; † 660 c.
4.   Ermenilda; † 700 c.
   m King Wulfere of Mercia (m04);
k08 664-673 Egbert I of Kent;
s (k07);

children :
1.   Eadric; (k10);
2.   Wihtred; (k11);
k09 673-685 Hlothere = Lothere;
s (k07);
k10 685-686 Eadric of Kent = Edric;
s (k08);
k10a 688-690 Swefhard;
Swefhard and a king called Oswin ruled;
k11 690-725 Wihtred = Witred = Wictred;
s (k08);

Cynegyth; m(1);

Æthelburh; m(2);

Werbuch; m(3);
children of one of the wives :
1.   Ethelbert II; (k12);
2.   Eadbert II; (k13);
3.   Alric;
k12 725-762 Ethelbert II of Kent;
s (k11);

In 762 a certain Sigered is mentioned as King for a part of Kent;
 
k13 725-748 or
725-761
Eadbert of Kent;
s (k11);

child or grandchild :
1.   Eardwulf, joint king with (k12) 748-760c.
k14 765-780 Egbert II of Kent;
k15 784-788? Ealhmund of Kent = Elmund;
his father was Eaba, the ggs of Cenred (w11a) through Ingild and Eoppa;

child :
1.   Egbert; (w18) and (k18a);
k16 796-798 Eadbert II Praen = Edbert II;
he was deposed by Cenwulf of Mercia (m012);
k17 798-807 Cuthred of Kent;
s Offa of Mercia (m10); b Coenwulf of Mercia; (m12);
k18 ?-825c Baldred of Kent;
he was expelled by king Egbert of Wessex (k18a);
k18a 825-839 +
856-858
Egbert of Kent and Wessex;
King Egbert of Wessex ca. 800-839 = (w18);

Redburh;
children :
1.   Ethelwulf; (w19);
2.   Athelstan; under-king of Kent 839-850;
k19 839-850 Athelstand;
s Egbert (w18);
k20 858-860 Ethelbert of Kent;
s Ethelwulf of Wessex (w19):
later King of Wessex (w21);

No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
m01 606-? Cearl;
m01a - Pybba;
s Creoda, gs Cynewald, ggs Cnebba
children :
1.   Penda; (m02);
2.   Eowa; (m03);
3.   Sister;
   m Cenwalh (w07);
m02 626-655 Penda;
s(m01a); he was killed at the Battle of Winwaed 15/11 655, when Mercia fought Northumbria;
Penda killed Oswald of Northumbria (n08) 05/08 642 [9090 p.170]

Cyneswide = Cynewise;
children :
1.   Wulfhere = Wulfere; (m04);
2.   Ethelred; (m05);
3.   Cyneburh = Kyneburga;
   m King Alhfrith of Northumbria / Deira (n11);
4.   Peada; became King after his father (m03a) [5128 p.3];
5.   Cyneswida = Kyneswitha;
6.   Merewahl;
m03 626-642 Eowa;
b (m02);
grandson becomes king Ethelbald (m08);

child :
1.   Alwih;
     who got:
     a) Æthelbald (m08); and
     b) Thingfrith (unsure if it is a gs) - who became father to Offa (m010);
m03a 655-657 Peada of Mercia;
s (m02); baptized 654 c. † 656 Easter time (OS) murdered, possibly by wife;

Alhflaed; m 654; d King Oswiu of Northumbria (n09);
m04 657-674 Wulfhere of Mercia;
s (m02); succeeded Peada (m03a);

Ermenilda; d King Earconbert of Kent (k07);
After she was widowed, she became nun and Abbess at Ely after her mother's death [5127]:
child :
1.   Coenred; (m06);
2.   Werburga; † 700 c.
m05 674-704 Ethelred of Mercia;
s (m02);
Abdicated 704;

Osthryth; d King Oswiu of Northumbria (n09);
child :
1.   Ceolred; (m07);
m06 704-709 Coenred of Mercia = Cenred;
s (m04);
m07 709-716 Ceolred of Mercia;
s (m05);

child :
1.   Werburh; abbess;
m08 716-757 Ethelbald of Mercia = Æthelbald;
s (n03-1); gs (m03);
m09 757-757 Beornred;
m10 757-796 Offa of Mercia;
of Eowa's family (m03); first king to be called »King of the English« in 774;

Cynethryth;
children :
1.   Ecgfrith; (m11);
2.   Ceolwulf I; (m13); possibly a son of Cuthbert, a cousin of Offa;
3.   Cuthred of Kent; (k17);
4.   Eadburh who m Beorhtric of Wessex (w17);
5.   Ælflæd who m King Æthelred I of Northumbria;
6.   Æthelburh who became an abbess;
m11 796-796 Ecgfrith = Egfrith;
s (m10); he only reigned from July to December 796;
m12 796-821 Coenwulf = Cænwulf = Cenwulf; related to brother of (m02); possibly a son of Offa's cousin Cuthbert;
m13 821-823 Ceolwulf I of Mercia;
s (m010)?; b (m012); possibly a son of Offa's cousin Cuthbert;
m14 823-825 Beornwulf;
m15 825-827 Ludecan = Ludeca;
m16 827-840 Wiglaf;

Cynethryth
m17 840-852 Beorhtwulf = Betwulf;
m18 852-874 Burgred;
he was expelled by the Danes in 874;

Ethelswith; † 888; d King Aethelwulf of Wessex (w19);
m19 874-880 Ceolwulf II;
he ruled a part of Mercia under the Danes;
m20 880-911 Ethelred II;

Ethelfleda; became queen after husband died; † 918; d king Alfred of Wessex (w23);
children :
1.   Burghred;
   m Æthelswith of Wessex (w19-6);
2.   Ælfwynn a daughter;
m21 911-918 Ethelfleda;
d (w23); widow of (m20); called » Lady of the Mercians«

Cooperated with father, Edward (W24) who ruled Mercia after 918.
Ethelfleda defeated the Vikings in a Battle at Wednesfield 911 - a turning point in the Viking campaigns.
m22 918- Elfwyn;
Queen of Mercia 918-?;
King Edward the Elder of Wessex (w24) took her prisoner and united the kingdoms in 918/919;

Kingdom of Northumbria

The kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia

No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
n01 547-568 Ida of Bernicia;
For a short period in 559 a king called Glapa is mentioned in [7933 p.486]
child :
1.   Ethelric; (n03);
n02 560-588 Aelle of Deira = Adda;
Aelle's father was Yffie, and Aelle's brother was Elfric, who got s Osric (n07), who got s Oswin (n09a);

children :
1.   Edwin; (n05);
2.   Acha; who m (n04);
n03 568-572 Ethelric of Bernicia;
s (n01);

children :
1.   Ethelfrith; (n04);
2.   Theobald;
Unsure if (n-03) was the father of Theobald;
n03a 572-579 Theodric of Bernicia;
n03b 579-585 Frithuwald of Bernicia;
n03c 585-592 Hussa of Bernicia;
n04 593-616 Ethelfrith;
s (n03); killed at the Battle of River Idle in 616;
Ruled Bernicia & Deira and was the first ruler of the united Northumbria;

Acha; d Aelle (n02);
children :
1.   Eanfrith; (n06);
2.   Oswald; (n08);
3.   Oswiu; (n09);
n05 616-632 Edwin of Northumbria;
s (n02); originally king of Deira; he was killed in the Battle of Hatfield Chase 12/10 632;

Coenburg; m(1); d king Cearl of Mercia (m01);
children :
1.   Osfrid;
   who got:
   a) Yffi;
2.   Edfrid = Eadfrid;

Ethelberga; m(2); d Ethelberg I of Kent;
children :
3.   Wuscfrea;
4.   Eanfled;
   m(1) Oswy (n-09);
   m(2) unknown;
n06 632-633 Earnfrith of Bernicia = Eanfrid;
s (n04);
n07 632-633 Osric of Deira;
bs (n02);

child :
1.   Oswin (n09a);
n08 633-642 Oswald of Bernicia;
s (n04); he ruled the whole of Northumbria; he was killed in the Battle of Maserfelth = Heavenfield 05/08 642 by King Penda of Mercia (n02);

Cyneburh; m; d Cynegils (W06);
Cyneburh took the veil after husband's death. See also Peterborough Cathedral.
n09 641-670
655-670
Oswiu = Oswy;
s (n04); † 670;
From 655 to 867 Bernicia was part of Northumbria;
Battle at Winwaed by Leeds 15/11 655, Oswy fought the Mercian intruders lead by King Penda;

Eanfled = Eanflaed;
children :
1.   Aldfrith; (n011);
2.   Egfrith; (n010);
3.   Elfwin;
4.   Ostryth;
   m King Æthelred of Mercia (m05);
5.   Elfleda; her father took the oath that Elfleda should grow up a virgin and be placed in a convent. She ended as Abbess at Whitby and died at 60.
6.   Ahlflaed;
   m 654 King Peada of Mercia (m03a);
   Here may be some confusion between 5. and 6.;
n09a 644-651 Oswin of Deira;
s(n07);
n10 670-685 Ecgfrith = Egfrid;
s (n09);

Etheldreda; m(1) 660; d King Anna of East Anglia; queen before 673 according to Ely [5127]; See also Ely Cathedral;
Her m(2). Her m(1) was to Tondbert of South Gyrwas.
In 672 she entered the convent at Coldingham in Northumbria; from there she came to Ely around 673 (it was her dowry from her m(1)). Here she became Abbess, installed by Archbishop Wilfred of York.

Eormenburh; m(2);
n11 685-704 Aldfrith = Alfred = Alchfrid;
s (n09);

Cyneburh of Mercia; d King Penda of Mercia (m02);

Cuthburh of Wessex; d Cenred (under w11a);
children of one or more of the wives :
1.   Osred; (n12);
2.   Osric; (n14) unconfirmed;
According to [10556 p.312] Bede, possibly two halfbrothers Alfred of whom one got Osred and the other got Osric;

A king Eadwulf ruled for two months in 705-706:
n12 704-716 Osred I;
s (n11);
n13 716-718 Cenred;
b (n15); son of Cuthwine;
n14 718-729 Osric;
s (n11) unconfirmed;
n15 729-737 Ceolwulf;
b (n13); son of Cuthwine;
n16 737-758 Eadbert = Edbert;
s of (n13)'s cousin; son of Eata

child :
1.   Oswulf; (n17);
n17 758-758 Oswulf;
s (n16);

child :
1.   Elfwald I; (n21);
n18 758-765 Ethelwald Moll;

child :
1.   Ethelred; (n20);
n19 765-774 Ahlred = Alred;
son of Eanwine;

Osgifu;
child :
1.   Osred II; (n22);
n20 774-779 and
790-796
Ethelred I;
s (n18); he was exiled in 778 or 779 and was restored in 790;

?; m(1);

Ælflæd of Mercia; m(2); d King Offa of Mercia;
n21 779-788 &
790-796
Elfwald I;
s (n17); Elfwald ruled in two periods;

children :
1.   Oelf; † 791;
2.   Oelfwine; † 791;
n22 788-790 Osred II;
s (n19); he was expelled in 790;
n23 796-796 Osbald;
he was expelled after having ruled for 27 days;
n24 796-796 Eardwulf;
He may have been deposed and restored 806 or finished his rule in 806?

child :
1.   Eanred; (n26);
n25 806-808 Elfwald II;
n26 808-840 Eanred;
s (n24);

child :
1.   Ethelred II; (n27);
n27 840-849 Ethelred II;
s (n26); he was expelled in 844 and Radwulf was king for a short period before Ethelred was restored;
n28 849-862 Osbert;
n29 862-867 Aelle II;
n30 867-873 Egbert I;
King of Bernicia;
n31 873-876 Ricsig;
King of Bernicia;
n32 876-878 Egbert II;
King of Bernicia;
n33 878-913 Eadwulf;

children :
1.   Aldred, king 913-927;
2.   Uhtred;


Kingdom of York

numbered = (yxxx). The Viking kingdom was created 875 or 876;
No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
y01 875-877 Halfdan I;
he was expelled and killed at the Battle of Strangford Lough in Ireland in 877;
y02 883-895 Sigfrid and Knut and Guthfrith I;
They were kings 895 [9972-II-850]
y03 899-902 Ethelwald = Ethelwold;
Prince of Wessex (w22-2); s Ethelred of Wessex; was elected king by the Vikings;
y04 902-910 Halfdan II;
ruled together with Eowil. Both were killed at the Battle of Tettenhall 05/08 910;
y05 910-921 Ragnald I = Ragnvald Gale;
King of York from 919;
y06 921-927 Sihtric I = Sigtryg Gale;

Sister of Ethelstan; m 925;
child :
1.   Olav Kvarån; he is defeated in the Battle at Brunanbuhr in 937 and Ethelstan is now » Rex totius Britanniae«
y07 927-927 Guthfrith II;
y08 927-939 Athelstand;
He is also the king of Wessex (w26);
y09 939-941 Olaf I Guthfrithsson;
y10 941-943 Olaf II Sihtricsson;
he was expelled from York 943;
y11 943-944 Ragnald II Guthfrithsson;
he was expelled from York 944;
y12 944-946 Edmund the Elder;
he is also king under Wessex as (w27);
y13 946-947 Eadred of Wessex;
he is also king under Wessex as (w28);
y14 947-949
or -954
Eric Bloodaxe;
King of Norway, returned to power in 954, but:
He was expelled and killed at the Battle of Stainmore in 954;
y15 954- Eadred of Wessex;
he is also king of Wessex under (w28);

No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
s01 477c-
after 491
Ælle;
s02 674-
680/685
Æthelwald;
s03 ? Berhthun;
s04 ? Andhun;
s05 692-710 Nothelm = Nunna;
s06 692 Watt;
s07 714 Æthelstan of Sussex;
s08 744-754 Æthelberht of Sussex;
s09 762-772 Osmund of Sussex;
s10 772 Oswald dux;
s11 772 Osloc dux;
s12 772-
787/791
Ealdwulf of Sussex;
s13 765 Ælhwald rex;

Kingdom of Wessex

   Kingdom of the West Saxons
No. Ruled King's name and relations
Queen's name and relations
w01 519-534 Cerdic;

child :
1.   Creoda; who got
     a) Cynric (w02);
w02 534-560 Cynric;
s (w01-1);

children :
1.   Ceawlin; (w03);
2.   Ceolwulf;
3.   Cutha; † 584; got the sons
     a) Ceolric (w04) and
     b) Ceolwulf (w05);
4.   Cuthwulf;
w03 560-593 Ceawlin;
s (w02);

child :
1.   Cuthwine; (w10a);
w04 593-597 Ceolric = Ceol;
s Cutha (w02-3); b (w05); † 597;

child :
1.   Cynegils; (w06), Cynegils could instead be s(w10a);
w05 597-611 Ceolwulf;
gs (w02); s Cutha † 597; b (w04);

children :
1.   Cuthgils; his ggs may be Aescwine (w09);
2.   Cynegils (w05);
3.   Ceolwald; [5075, A-S Chr. year 676 + 688]
w06 611-643
or
611-645
Cynegils;
s (w05); Baptized 635;
He might have been a son of any of the men of the (w03-w05) generation;

children :
1.   Cwichelm; † 636;
2.   Cenwealh; (w07);
3.   Cyneburh; m king Oswald of Northumbria (n08);
4.   Centwine; (w10);
w07 643-672
or
645-672
Cenwalk = Cenwalh = Cenwealh = Cenwel;
s (w06); Baptized during his exile in East Anglia, ca. 646-649;

Sister of Penda (m02); m(1); divorced; [9090 p.171]
no children ;

Sexburh; m(2); (w08); who became queen;
no children ;
w08 672-674 Seaxburh = Sexburh;
second wife of (w07); † 674;
w09 674-676 Asewine = Aescwine; gggs (w05); s of Centus; gs of Cenferth; Unsure relations may be a descendant of (w03);
w10 676-685 Centwine;
s (w06);

Sister-in-law to King Ecgfrith of Northumbria;
child :
1.   Bugge, correspondent of Boniface;
w10a not a king Cuthwine;
s (w03); His relations are uncertain, most probably s of (w03);

children - uncertain relationship - sources differ :
1.   Chad; got a son Cenbert † 661, who got s (w11) and s Mul † 687;
2.   Cynebald; got s Ethelbald, who got s Oswald Atheling † 729;
3.   Cuthwulf = Cutha; got s Ceolwald, who got s Cenred (w11a);
w11 685-688 Caedwalla baptised Peter;
s Cenbert (under w10a); he abdicated, was baptised and moved to Rome, where he died 688;
w11a not a king Cenred;
s Ceolwald (under w10a);

children :
1.   Ina; (w12);
2.   Ingild; † 718; who got s and gs and ggs who was King Ealhmund of Kent; (k015) and father to (w18);
3.   Cwenburh; abbess of Wimborne Convent;
4.   Cuthburh; m Alfred of Northumbria (n11);
w12 688-726 Ine = Ina;
s(w11a); † 726 or shortly after.
King of Wessex from 688 to 726*);
Abdicated in 726;
Visited same year Rome and Pope Gregory II, and died in Rome.

Æthelburh;

*) King Ine is mentioned in Wells Cathedral for having established the first building in 705.
w13 726-740 Aethelheard = Ethelhard;
of Cerdic's line (w01);
w14 740-754 or
740-756
Cuthred;
w15 754-756 or
756-757
Sigeberht;
w16 757-784 Cynewulf;
w17 784-802 Beorhtric = Britic;

Eadburh; d King Offa of Mercia;
w18 800-839
802-839
Egbert;
s Ealhmund of Kent; (k015); he was overlord of all English kingdoms 829-830;
His line came from (w11a);

Redburh;
children :
1.   Ethelwulf; (w19);
2.   Athelstan; under-king of Kent 839-850;
w19 839-858 Ethelwulf = Aethelwulf;
s Egbert (w18);
Under-king in Kent from 825-839 and again 856-858;
He was at the Frankish court and in Rome from 855 to 856;

Osburh; m(1); † 848/852/853; d Oslac of Wight;
children :
1.   Athelstan; subking 839-851/5;
2.   Ethelbald; (w20);
3.   Ethelbert; (w21);
4.   Ethelred I; (w22);
5.   Alfred the Great; (w23);
6.   Ethelswith;
   m Burghred, d King of Mercia (m20);

Judith; m(2); d emperor Charles the Bald by his 2nd wife;
she m 2ndly her stepson Ethelbald (w020); and re-m(3) Count Baldwin I of Flanders as his 2nd wife.
w20 855-860 Ethelbald = Æthelbald;
s(w19);

Judith; her 2nd m, her first was to Ethelbald's father;
w21 860-866 Ethelbert;
s(w19); under-king of Kent 858-860 (k020);
w22 866-871 Æthelred I = Ethelred;
s(W021);
children :
1.   Ethelhelm;
2.   Ethelwald; king of York, 901-905; (y03);
3.   Thyra; m Danish king Gorm the Old;
w23 871-899 Alfred the Great = Alfred den Store;
s(w19); * 849; † 899; ‡ Hyde Abbey;
King from April 871;

Ealhswith; m 867; d Ethelred Mucel, ealdorman of the Gainas in Mercia;
children :
1.   Edward the Elder; (w24);
2.   Ethelwerd; † 922;
   he got two sons, Elfwine and Ethelwine, killed at Battle of Brunaburh in 937;
3.   Ethelfleda; † 918;
   m Ethelred II of Mercia (m20);
4.   Ethelgiva = Æthelgifu; Abbess of Shaftesbury Convent;
5.   Elfrida = Æthelthryth;
   m Count Baldwin II of Flanders † 918;
w24 899-924 Edward the Elder = Eadweard;
s(W23); * c. 875; † 17/09 924; ‡ Winchester Cathedral;
King from 26/10 899;

Eggwyn = Ecgwym, m(1) 893; discarded her 899;
children :
1.   Athelstand; (w26); * c. 895;
2.   daughter;
   m 926 Sihtric, Danish king of Northumberland / York; † 927;

Elfleda = Ælfflæd; m(2) 899; d ealdorman Ethelhelm of Wiltshire;
children :
  3.   Ethelweard (W25); † 924;
  4.   Edwin; 946-955 drowned;
  5.   Elfleda; nun at Winchester Convent;
  6.   Edgiva;
     m(1) Charles the Simple of France;
     m(2) count Herbert of Meaux;
  7.   Ethelhilda; became a lay sister somewhere;
  8.   Edhilda;
     m Count Hugh the Great of Paris; Duke of the Franks;
  9.   Eadgyth = Edith;
     m Otto I of Germany;
10.   Elgiva = Hemma † 1005;
     m duke Boleslaw II of Bohemia;

Two daughters married in turn Duke Conrad of Burgundy;

Edgiva = Eadgifu; m(3) 919; d ealdorman Sigehelm of Kent;
children :
11.   Edmund I the Elder (w27); * 921; † 26/05 946;
12.   Edred; (w28); * 923; † 23/11 955;
13.   Edburh; nun at Winchester;
14.   Edgiva;
   m King Louis of Provence / Aquitania;
15.-18. He had a total of 18 children;
w25 924 Elfward = Ethelweard;
s(w24); † 02/08 924;
King from 17/07 924 to 02/08 924;
w26 925-939 Athelstan;
s(W24); * c. 895; † 22/10 939; ‡ Malmesbury Abbey;
King from 02/08 924 or 04/09 925; ruled also Mercia from 02/08 924;
Crowned king of Wessex by bishop Athelm of Wells in 925;
Became the first king of all England apart from Cumbria;
Seized York in 927 after sister's husband Sihtric had died;
Died a bachelor;

According to [10024] p. 35 and p. 131 Athelstand was Danish born Gudrun and baptized Athelstand.
w027 939-946 Edmund I the Elder The Deed-Doer;
s(w24); * 921; † 26/05 946, murdered by an outlaw; ‡ Glastonbury;
King from 27/10 939;

St. Elgiva = Ælfgifu; m(1);
children :
1.   Edwy = Eadwig; (w29); † 959;
2.   Edgar; (w30);

Ethelfleda of Domerham = Aethelflaed of Damerhame; m(2); d ealdorman Alfgar of Wiltshire;
no children ;

St Dunstan abbot in Glastonbury. Revival of Monasticism.
w28 946-955 Edred;
s(w24); * 923; † 23/11 955; ‡ Winchester Cathedral;
King from 26/05 946;
Died a bachelor;
w29 955-959 Edwy = Eadwig;
s(w27); * 941; † 01/10 959; ‡ Winchester Cathedral;
King from 23/11 955;

Elfgifu = Elgiva = Ethelgive; m 958; m later annulled;
w30 959-975 Edgar I = Edgar the Martyr;
s(w027); * 942; † 08/07 975; ‡ Glastonbury Abbey;
King of Mercia and Northumbria from 957;
King of all England from 01/10 959;
Crowned in Bath in 973;

Ethelfleda = Aethelflead; m(1); d ealdorman Ordmaer;
children :
1.   Edward the Martyr; (w31);
2.   Edmund; † 970/971;

Ælfthryth; m(2);
child :
3.   Ethelred II the Unready; (w32) [10417 p.5];
Wulfthryth; mistress, she was a nun;
child :
4.   Eadgyth; * 961;

Elfrida = Elfthryth; m(2) 965; d ealdorman Ordgar of Devon, widow of Ethelwald of East Anglia;
w31 975-978 Edward the Martyr;
s(w030); * c. 962; assassinated at Corfe in Dorset 18/03 978 by a stepbrother's follower; ‡ Shaftesbury;
King of England from 08/07 975;
Canonized and a saint from 1001;
Died a bachelor;
w32 978-1013 and
Mar 1014-1016
Ethelred II the Unready; meaning:
The Noble Advicer lacking Good Counsel;
s(w30); * c. 968; † 23/04 1016; ‡ St. Paul's Cathedral London;
King from 18/03 978;
Battle of Maldon 10/08 to 11/08 991;

Elfleda = Ælflaed = Elfgifu; m(1) 1002; d ealdorman Thored;
children :
  1.   Athelstan;
  2.   Egbert; † 1005;
  3.   Edmund II Ironside; (w33); † 1016;
  4.   Edred;
  5.   Edwy; † 1017;
  6.   Edward;
  7.   Edgar;
  8.   Edith;
     m ealdorman Edric Streona of Mercia;
  9.   Elgiva;
     m Uchtred s of Earl of Northumbria;
10.   Wulfhilda;
     m ealdorman Wulfcytel = Ulfcytel Snylling of East Anglia;
11.   daughter;
     m Athelstan;

A halfsister to Edward (w034) was abbess at Wherwell;

Ælfigu; m(2);

Emma of Normandy; m(3); sister to Duke Richard II of Normandy;
she m(2) Ethelred II in 1002;
her second husband was Canute of Denmark, they married 1017;
children :
12.   Goda = Godgifu;
   m(1) count Drogo of Mantes and Vexin;
     they got:
     a) Walter, Count of Vexin, m 1051 d Count of Maine;
     b) Ralp the Timid, Earl of Hereford, † 1057;
   m(2) count Eustace II of Boulogne;
13.   Alfred Atheling; † 1036;
   caught by Earl Godwin, blinded on King Harold Harefoot's order (Dk 002);
   died of his wounds at Ely;
14.   Edward the Confessor; (w034);
w33 980-1016 Edmund II Ironside = Edmund Jernside;
s(w32); * c. 989; † 30/11 1016 in Glastonbury; ‡ Glastonbury;
King from 23/04 to 30/11 1016;
Defeated by King Canute 18/10 1016 at Ashington, Essex;

Ealdgyth = Edith; * c. 995; m 1015; widow of Sigeferth of Earngrim;
As a widow she left England with children and stayed at the Hungarian Court;
children :
1.   Edmund Atheling / Ætheling; * c. 1016; † 1046 possibly, 1054 certainly;
He may have been her stepson from an earlier marriage (as two children in one year sounds unnatural).
   m Hedwig, d king Stephen of Hungary;
2.   Edward Atheling; (w035); * 1016; † 1057;
w34 1042-1066 Edward the Confessor = Edward Bekenderen;
s(w32); * c. 1005; † 05/01 1066;
see also Edward under later kings (England 004);
Left England with mother as a child and stayed in Normandy.
Went briefly to England in 1014 when father was restored;
Returned eventually in 1041;
Crowned 03/04 1043;

Robert of Junièges became Archbishop of Canterbury after Eadsige;

Eadgyth = Edith; m(1); † 1075; sister to Harald II;
no children ;
w35 - Edward Atheling = Edward den Fredløse = Edward the Exile;
s(w033); * 1016; † 1057; ‡ St. Paul's;
Part of childhood or youth spent at Swedish court; lived later at the Hungarian court;
Returned to England in 1057 an died a few days later;

Agatha; * c. 1018; m 1038 c., † 1093 c.; parents uncertain either:
d King Stephen of Hungary; or:
d Prince Vladimir I of Novgorod and Kiev (K06);
children :
1.   Edgar Atheling (w036); * ca. 1040 or 1050;
2.   St. Margaret Atheling; * 1043-1045; † 16/11 1093;
   m c. 1070 king Malcolm III of Scotland;
   they got
     a) Matilda,
       m king Henry I of England;
3.   Christina; * c. 1045; became a nun at Romsey Abbey;

All three children were born in Hungary;
w36 - Edgar Atheling;
s (w35); chosen king October to December 1066, but never crowned.


Opdateret d. 5.3.2017
Back to reference monarchies front page
Back to top
Back to front page of history pages
Back to front page