DET TYSKE OMRÅDE

STATSDANNELSER OG REGENTER

Indhold

Indledning

Det tyske eller germanske område har fra den tidlige middelalder til det tyvende århundrede været delt og samlet mange gange og i forskellige kombinationer. Det er derfor temmeligt komplekst at få styr på regenter og regerende fyrstehuse og deres indbyrdes forbindelser.

Som kejserdømme var det tyske rige meget forskelligt fra det romerske kejserrige. De tyske kejsere var til tider kun kejsere af navn, men uden nogen større udøvende magt over de tilknyttede kongeriger; til andre tider havde de stor magt og herskede over store dele af Europa. Til tider var kejsertitlen givet i samdrægtighed med paven, mens den til andre tider var givet imod pavedømmets ønske. I perioder var kejsertitlen ikke benyttet. Tillægsordet »hellig« blev først tilknyttet senere. Kejserdømmet bestod til 1806.

Tyskland var indenrigs et valgkongedømme efter rigsdagen i Forchheim 1077. Tidligere havde det været et arverige, og efter 1077 forblev det i praksis et arverige indtil Lothar blev valgt i Supplinburg i 1125. Derefter fungerede valgprocedurerne.
[9834 p.132]

I denne tekst opridser jeg nogle enkeltheder om områderne og regenterne. Da hovedparten af kildeteksterne er på engelsk, bibeholdes engelsk i regenttabellerne.

Det Tysk-Romerske Kejserrige fra 800-

Den første kejserslægt er den Karolingiske Slægt, der indleder sin regeringsperiode med Karl den Store.

Karl den Store
Karl den Store bliver kronet til kejser i Peterskirken juledag år 800. Senere, i 806, fordeler han sit rige mellem sine tre sønner, således at Karl får Frankrig og Tyskland = Saxen, der dengang svarede til området mellem Holland og Magdeburg og ned til Harzen. Pepin bliver konge over Italien og Bayern, og Ludvig I får Aquitanien. Ludvig overlever sine brødre og bliver kejser over imperiet efter Karl den Store.

Styrkemæssigt var de adelige familier magtfulde. Der regnes med 42 adelige slægter, hvoraf de 19 var tæt forbundet til kejserslægten. Der var en begrænset centraladministration, og styret hvilede på den tætte tilknytning mellem kejsere og de lokale fyrster.
[9495 p.14, 9690 p.20]

Kirkehistorisk set deler Karl riget i 21 ærkebiskopdømmer, og det nordligste er Hamburg, hvor den første ærkebiskop hedder Willehad. Jf.[1919p.222] var den første dog Ansgar, udnævnt i 831. Karl afholder konsilier, der er betydende, selv om de ikke er økumeniske. Der står mere om kirkeforholdene under kirkehistorien.

Ludvig den Fromme
Ludvig I den Fromme deler riget mellem sine tre sønner, Lothar - Pepin - Ludvig, men da en fjerde søn kommer til i 823, ønsker faderen, at også denne søn får en bid af kagen, nemlig Aquitanien, der ellers var lovet Pepin. Denne ændring får de tre ældste sønner til at gøre oprør. Faderens oprindelige plan var at lade Lothair få Germania, og han blev også forudbestemt til at overtage kejserværdigheden efter faderen.

Pepin skulle være konge over Aquitanien, Pepin I af Aquitaine fra 814, og Ludvig (003) skulle herske over Bayern og omliggende lande. Inden planen gennemføres, dør Pepin i 838.

Da Ludvig den Fromme dør i Ingelheim 840, bryder sønnernes oprør for alvor ud, og Ludvig den Tyske og Karl den Skaldede slår sig sammen og kæmper mod Lothair, der fra Italien forsøger at få magt også nord for Alperne. Kampenes hovedslag står i Frankrig ved Fontenoy i 841. De to brødre sværger hinanden at stå sammen mod Lothar, og det er ved denne lejlighed, i 842, at vi har det første dokument med sprogene fransk og tysk: den ene sværger på fransk og den anden på tysk. I 843 bliver alle brødrene forligte, eller Lothair tvinges til at acceptere kejserrigets deling. Traktaten kaldes efter byen for Verduntraktaten, men det er usikkert om det er Verdun ved Meusefloden, eller Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, lidt syd for Dijon, der var stedet.

Nogle måneder senere, i november samme år i Coulaines, sluttede kejseren en traktat med adelen om rigets styring. Denne aftale er senere blevet betragtet som grundlæggelsen af det Vestfrankiske Rige, altså begyndelsen til Frankrigs selvstændighed.

Ved disse aftaler får Karl den Skaldede Frankrig og Baskerlandet = Vestfranken; Ludvig den Tyske får Germania, der stadig kan kaldes Østfranken, og Lothair får Italien, Burgund og en mindre bufferzone, Lotharingien = Lothari Regnum = Lorraine, mellem Karl og Ludvig, men med de vigtige byer: Rom, Pavia og Aachen. Lothair får også kejserværdigheden.

Bufferzonens nordlige del fra Nordfrisien til Basel og mod vest til Verdun og Brügge danner Nedre Lothringen og Øvre Lothringen = Lower Lorraine og Upper Lorraine - navne afledt af Lothars navn. Samme område med nogen forlængelse mod øst kendes også under navnet Austrasien.

Sønden derfor strækker Burgund sig til Marseilles, grænsende mod øst til Lombardiet i Italien. Mod vest ligger Aquitanien og norden for Aquitanien kaldes Frankrigsområdet for Neustrien.

Da Lothair dør i 855 har ingen af hans tre sønner produceret en mandlig arving, så Lothair IIs Lothringen deles efter hans død i 869 mellem Ludvig den Tyske og Karl den Skaldede. Da kejser Ludvig II dør i 875, bliver Karl den Skaldede kejser. Han får kun lov at beholde værdigheden i et par år og dør i 877. Ludvig den Tyske var død i 876, og riget blev delt mellem hans svage sønner, Carloman og Louis III. Sønnerne dør kort tid derefter på nær den yngste; Karl den Tykke, som regerer et forenet rige, indtil han afsættes i 887.

I 880 indgår Ludvig III, † 882, og Carloman, † 884, en overenskomst, hvori den vestfrankiske del af Lorraine overlades Ludvig III.

For at få den rette baggrund for Karl den Store er hans forældre medtaget i slægtstabellen herunder.

s = son of; d = daughter of; m = married to; m(1) = first married to; † died date; ‡ buried at;

No. Ruling Names and remarks
000 0714-0783 Pepin the Short Ruled to 768.
m Bertrada † 783;
issues:
   Charlemagne (001);
   Carloman, † 771;
   Pepin, † as child;
   Gisela, † 810.
001 0742-0814
EMPEROR
0800-0814
Karl den Store - Charlemagne - Charles I of Holy Roman Empire
s 000. * c. 2/4 742, † 28/1 814 at Aachen; king from 768; emperor from 800.
Himiltrude, a Frank, m(1);
issue:
   Pepin the Hunchback; * 777; † 810/811. King of Lombardy & Italy;

Desideria, a Lombard princess, m(2); d Desiderius, divorced 771;

Hildegard, a Swabian, m(3); † 783;
issues:
   Charles receives France and Germany = Saxony, † 811;
   Adelheid died young;
   Rohtrud = Rotrude = Hrotrud, * 772, † 810;
   Pepin = Pippin (Carloman) receives Italy and Bavaria and becomes king of Italy from 781,
       * 777, † 810; illegitimate son Bernard, becomes King of Italy 813-817; † 818;
   Louis I the Pious (002) receives Aquitaine, survives his brothers and becomes Frankish Emperor,
       * 778, † 840.
   Lothair, twin brother of (002), * † 778;
   Berthe = Bertha, † 814/826; she m Angilbert, abbot of St. Riquier;
   Gisela * 781;
   Hildegard * & † 783.

Fastrada, an East Frank, m(4); † 794.
issues:
   Theoderada, abbess of Argenteuil;
   Hiltrude, abbess of Farmoutier;

Luitgard = Liutgard, a Swabian, m(5); † 800.
[9673]

Madelgarde;
It is possible that Hildegard's m(3) children should be attributed to Madelgarde m(5);

unknown mother; issues:
   Drogo; Bishop of Metz 823-855;
[9830]
   Hugo; abbot of St. Quentin;
002 0778-0840
EMPEROR
0814-0840
Ludvig I den Fromme - Louis I the Pious - Lewis I the Pious - Louis of Aquitaine
s 001. * 778; † 20/6 840; King of Aquitania 781-; co-emperor from 813, emperor from 814 after Pepin and Charles have died. Louis reunites the three parts of the country.

Irmengard of Hesbaye = Ermengarde; m(1); † 818;
issues:
   Lothar (003)
   Pepin = Pippin I = Pepin V, † 838; King of Aquitania 817-838;
      s Pippin II; King of Aquitania 838-848; † post 864;
   Louis II the German (005)

Judith of Bavaria, d count Welf; m(2);
   issue:
   Gisela; m Eberhard of Friuli † 864; and gets:
      Berengari I King of Italy 888, Emperor 911 (in Italy, but without power), † 924;
      Berengari I gets d Gisela who m Adalbert, Marquess of Ivrea who gets
      Berengar II, King of Italy 950-961;
   Charles II the Bald * 16/3 823, † 6/10 877 (007).
      He becomes West Francian king from 843-877, and emperor from 875-877.
      He tries to take advantage of Lorraine when Loius the German dies,
      but are defeated at the battle at Andernach in 876.
003 0795-0855
EMPEROR
0840-0855
Lothair I
s 002. * 795; † 29/9 855. Just before he died, he abdicated and became a monk in the Abbey of Prüm, Germany.
King of Bavaria from 814 and king in Italy from 822.
Lothair broke with the father in 829, when Louis I's last son, Charles, got a part of his territory.
He was reinstalled in 830, but again deposed soon afterward.
Revolt by Louis' three sons in 833, and Lothair took over his father's title.
However, he lost it again to the father 834.

Joint emperor from 817, crowned emperor by pope Paschal I in 823, sole emperor from 840.
He was defeated at the battle of Fontenay 841 because he tried to rule his brothers' territories.
The Verdun Treaty of 843 settled the dispute.
issues:
   Louis II, (004), crowned as Longobard king by pope Gregorius IV in 844
    when his father gave him ruling power. He became heir to the empire in 850 and emperor from 855;
   Charles, King of Provence and Burgundy 855-863;
   Lothair II, King of Friesland and Lorraine 855-869; no legitimate children.
      He got Hugh and;
      Bertha; m Theobald of Arles, they gets s Hugh of Arles, King of Italy 925-947;
      Hugh gets Lothaire, King of Italy 947-950;
004 0822-0875
EMPEROR
0855-0875
Ludvig II = Louis II = Lewis II
s 003; † 12/8 875;
King of Italy on his father's behalf from 844, crowned king 15/6 844,
when Lothair I divided the realm Sep. 855, Louis got Italy.
In 859 Louis received territory from Lothair II and when Charles of Provence died 863, he also got a fair part of that territory.
Crowned emperor 6 April 850 and sole emperor from 855.
The male line of Carolingian dynasty became extinct after Louis' death.

Engelberga;
issue:
   Ermengarde; m Bosco, King of Provence 879-887.
      They gets Louis the Blind, King of Provence 887, King of Italy 900 and Emperor 901; † 928;
005 0804-0876
KING EAST
Ludvig II den Tyske - Louis II the German = Ludwig der Deutsche
s 002, * c.804, † 28/8 876; King of East Francia 840-876;

Emma of Bavaria = Hemma; m(1); d Count Welf;
issues:
   Carloman of Bavaria = Karlmann von Bayern, (011), † 884; joint ruler 876-880 with
   Louis III the Younger (009), * c.830; † 20/1 882;
   Charles III the Fat = Karl III den Tykke, (010); † 887.
006 0835-0869
KING MIDDLE
0855-0869
Lothair II = Lothar II
s 003. * 835; † 8/8 869. King of Friesland and Lotharingia 855-869;
after brother Charles had died in 863 Lothair also received areas in Burgundy around Vienne and Lyon.
Theutberga, m ?.
no issues;
007 0843-0876
EMPEROR
875-876
Karl II den Skaldede - Charles II the Bald = Karl II der Kahle
s 002. * 843; King of the West Francia 843-877; in 870 he shared Lothringia with Louis the German.
Emperor from 25/12 875, crowned in Rome by pope John VIII.
issue:
   Louis, king of Aquitania (008).
008 0855-879
KING WEST
France
Ludvig II Stammeren - Louis II the Stammerer = Ludwig der Stammler = Louis II le Bègue
s 007. * 846, † 10/4 879;
King of Aquitania from 867, king of West Francia Dec. 877-879; ruled as emperor from 875;

Engelberge = Ansgarde; m; † 890.
issues
   Louis III; (009);
   Carloman;

Adelaide;
issue:
   Charles the Simple; born after father had died;
009 0830-0882
KING EAST
0879-0882
Ludvig III den Yngre - Louis III the Younger = Louis III af Saxony = Ludwig III der Jüngere
s 005, * c.830, † 20/1 882 in Lorsch;
King of a part of the East Francia (Saxony & Bavaria) = Ostfranken from 28/8 876 to 882.
He defeated Charles the Bald at Andernach Oct. 876 and incorporated Western Lothringia in Germany. In 879 he got Bavaria from his weakling brother Carloman;
The treatises at Verdun 879 and Ribémont 880 on the partition of the realm.

Liutgard; m; of the Liudolfinger dynasty;
no issues;
010 0877-0888
EMPEROR
0881-0887
Karl den Tykke - Charles III the Fat = Karl III der Dicke;
s 005. * 839; King of Allemania or Swabia 28/8 876; King of Italy Nov. 879; Emperor from 12/2 881 til Nov. 887; Sole king of East Francia May 882; † 13/1 888.
[9830] has: Sole King and Emperor from 884 to he is deposed 887; † 888;
Deposed by Arnulf (011) at the Diet of Tribur.
011 0887-0899
EMPEROR
0896-0899
Arnulf = Arnulf of Carinthia = Arnulf von Kärnten, Herzog von Bayern
Nephew 010, s of Carloman of Bavaria;
King of Bavaria 887-899; Emperor from 896.

Oda; m;
issue:
   Louis IV the Child (012);
   Glismut; daughter who m (013);
A bastard son:
   Zwentibold becomes King of Lotharingia 895-900;

Carloman of Bavaria, a bastard grandson of Louis the German (005); * before 830; King of Bavaria 28/8 876; King of Italy Oct. 877; † 22/3 880;
012 0893-0911
KING EAST
0900-0911
Ludvig IV Barn - Louis IV the Child = Ludwig das Kind;
s 011. * 893; † 24/9 911;
King of East Francia from 4/2 900; he is defeated at Augsburg i 910 by the Magyars;
He died set under administration by the Archbishop Hatto of Mainz;
013 0911-0918
EMPEROR
0911-0918
Konrad I af Franken = Conrad I of Franconia = Konrad I = Conrad the Younger;
* 890c; parents: Duke Conrad of the Franconia + Glismut of Arnulf (011);
Elected king 10/11 911 at Forchheim; † 23/12 918;

Kunigunde, of the Alaholfings of Swabia;
issues;
   Kunigunde of Germany; * 913;
   Hermann, Duke of Franconia; * 913;

Of 002's line and the last of the Carolingians. Brother Eberhard III of Franconia was leader of the Franconian and Saxon nobles, when the king following Conrad was elected at the diet in Fritzlar in 919, and on Konrad's advise given before he died, they elected Henry the Fowler (014).

 
Efter den karolingiske periode
Efter den karolingiske linjes herskerperiode omfatter det tyske område omkring år 900 stort set Tyskland, Holland, Schweiz som i dag, men østgrænsen er endnu ikke trukket så langt mod øst som i dag. Østrig strækker sig ikke helt til Wien. Folkeslagene er delt i fire hovedgrupper: sakserne, bayerne, frankerne og svaberne med en mindre portion thüringer. Mod vest er der to mindre folkegrupper i hhv. øvre og nedre Lotharingia = Lorraine.

De saksiske fyrster
Den næste linje, der regerer riget, bliver af Arnulfs slægt (006) og kaldes de saksiske regenter. Stammen kaldes også på tysk for der Liudolfingischen Dynastie. Se under Sachsen om de saksiske fyrster.

Slægtens første fyrste er Henrik Fuglefænger, der det meste af sin regeringstid måtte kæmpe mod oprør fra hertugerne af Bayern og Swabien, og først under sønnen Otto I var slægtens magtbase sikret, og området blev i en periode Europas stærkeste.

Henrik I af Tyskland fik ved tronbestigelsen magten over de to hertugdømmer Sachsen og Franken, mens de to andre betydende hertugdømmer, Bayern og Schwaben ikke ville acceptere Henrik som konge. Hertug Burchard af Schwaben blev senere på året, 919, tvunget til at anerkende Henrik, men samtidig valgte hertugen af Bayern og nogle adelsslægter fra det østlige Franken hertug Arnulf af Bayern som deres konge, antikonge. I 921 blev Arnulf over for Henriks militærmagt tvunget til at anerkende ham som konge over hele Tyskland.

Den vestfrankiske del var dog på vej til at glide ud af kejserriget, og styret koncentrerede sig reelt mere om at udvide sit territorium mod øst, hvor Magyarerne i det meste af perioden truede med indfald. I 928 tvang Henrik dog kong Giselbert af Lorraine til også at anerkende sig som konge, og derved kom denne vestligste del af Tyskland, Lothringen und Rheinland, tilbage til riget. Giselbert blev også pacificeret gennem giftemål med Henriks datter Gerbera i 928.

Henriks sidste militære udfald var mod nord, hvor han kæmpede mod vikingerne fra Danmark, der hærgede ind i Tyskland. Henrik annekterede Slesvig.

Henrik I bliver den første konge over området kaldet Tyskland, som af sin efterfølger også får navnet Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation = Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation. Grundlæggelsesdatoen regnes gerne fra Otto I's kroning 2/2 962. Henrik er også omtalt under Quedlinburg.

Ottos magtcentrum lå omkring Harzen og han grundlagde i Magdeburg en slags hovedstad - selv om fyrsterne endnu rejste omkring med hoffet over hele riget, så regeringen foregik fra skiftende opholdssteder. Om en centraladministration var der endnu ikke tale.

Den største »centralmagt« lå hos kirken, og Otto belønnede kirken med skatte- og afgiftsfritagelse og gav dem egen jurisdiktion. Det skete i 951.
[9690 p.35ff]

De to historieskrivere fra perioden er Widukind fra Corvey og Thietmar fra Merseburg.

Stilmæssigt betegnes stilen fra 920/930 til 1000 som ottonsk;
Stilen fra 1000 til 1050 betegnes som sen-ottonsk og;
Stilen fra 1050 til 1080 kaldes tidlig-salisk.
Ottonernes karakteristiske nyhed var kirkernes tværskibe, der bliver større og mere markante end tidligere. Mere om arkitektur her.
[9812 p.21+25ff]

No. Ruling Names and remarks
014 0919-0936 Henrik I Fuglefænger = Henry I the Fowler = Heinrich der Vogler = Heinrich der Finkler;
Duke of Saxony from 912;
German King from 12/5 919.
* 875-876, † 2/7 936 at Memleben, ‡ Quedlinburg, Abbey of Quedlinburg.
S of Duke Otto the Illustrious = Otto der Erlauchte, † 912, and Hedwiga a g.g.d Charlemagne (001).

Hatheburg, m(1) 906, d Count Erwin, Saxony. Divorced 909;
issues:
   Thankmar *909, killed in battle against Otto I † 936/938;

Matilda of Ringelheim, * c.895; m(2) 910, † 968; ‡ Quedlinburg;
   d Count Dietrich, Westfalia and a direct descendant of Widukind;
issues:
   Otto (015); * 912;
   Henry I of Bavaria; * c.920; Duke of Bavaria from 948-955; † 955;
      m Judith of Bavaria; * c.925; † 987;
      their son Heinrich der Zänker; * c.951; † 995; m Gisela of Burgund, 952-1007;
         H&G's s, Heinrich, (018) became Henry II;
         their second s, Brun, 977-1029, became bishop of Augsburg from 1006-1029;
         their d, Gisela, 985-1060, m Stephan, King of Hungary.

   Brun = Bruno I; * c.925; Archbishop of Kölln and Duke and vice-regent of Lorraine from 953, † 965;
   Gerberga of Saxony; * c.913;
      m(1) to Duke Giselbert of Lorraine, m(2) king Louis IV of France; † c.968;
   Hedwige = Hadwig of Saxony; * c.922;
      m Duke Hugh the Great of France (Franzien); † c.958; she got the s Hugh Capet.

Henry I became king when Conrad I (013) died, 23/12 918. He was elected in May 919 at Fritzlar
Henry opposes a church crowning and supports his power on the secular vassals.
He is the first ruler who issues documents naming the area Germany = Regnum Teutonicorum.
Henry never took the title emperor, but preferred the title Primus inter Pares.
He secured the dynasty by appointing his eldest son as the following king in 929.
015 0912-0973
EMPEROR
0936-0973
Otto I den Store = Otto I the Great = Otto I der Grosse;
s 014. * 23/11 912; † 7/5 973 at Memleben; ‡ Magdeburg Dom;
Duke of Saxony 936-961;
Enthroned as king in Aachen by all five duchies 7/8 936;
King of Lombardy, kingdom of Italy 23/9 951;
Crowned as emperor in Rome the 2/2 962;

Edith = Edgitha, m(1) i 930; † 946; ‡ Magdeburg;
   d Edward the Elder of England (ruled 899-925) and sister to Athelstand (925-939);
   Editha rebuilt Magdeburg and was ‡ Magdeburg.
issues:
   Liudolf of Swabia; * 930; Duke from 950; † 957; m Ida of Swabia;
   Liudgard; * c.931; † 853; m Duke Conrad of Lorraine;

Adelheid of Burgundy, m(2); she was widow after an Italian king;
issues:
   Otto; (016); Duke of Carinthia;
   Mathilde; * c.955; † 999; abbess at Quedlinburg from 966;

illegitimate issue with a slav noble woman:
   William; * 929; † 968; becomes archbishop of Mainz, 954-968;

By the enthronement in 936 the
Archbishop Heriger of Mainz was followed by Frederick;
Duke of Lorraine was Gilbert;
Duke of Franconia was Eberhard;
Duke of Swabia was Hermann;
Duke of Bavaria was Arnulf.

From Otto I the imperial crown was tied to the papal coronation and the kingship of Germany.
955 - Otto I win the battle the 10/8 at Lechfeld bei Augsburg over Hungary;
955 - Otto founded the archbishopseat at Magdeburg;
016 0955-0983
EMPEROR
0973-0983
Otto II
s. 015. * 955; † 7/12 983 in Rome; ‡ St. Peter's Church, Rome (the former church).
King of Germany from 26/5 961, crowned at Achen - co-ruler with his father;
Crowned as emperor 25/12 967 in Rome - co-ruler with his father.
Sole ruler from 7/5 973.

Theophano = Theophanu; * 959; m 14/4 972; † 991; ‡ St Pantaleon, Kölln;
   She is the niece of the Byzantine emperor John Tzimisces, 969-976;
issues:
   Otto (017);
   Adelheid; * 977; † 14/1 1043; Abbess in Gernrode after Hathui;

The empire became »Roman« during Otto II (and »Holy« in the 12th cent.)
017 0980-1002
EMPEROR
0983-1002
Otto III
s 016. * 980; † 24/1 1002 in Italy; ‡ Aachen.
Died unmarried; had woed a Byzantine princess.
King of Germany from 25/12 983;
King of Italy, Lombardy, from 996.
Crowned emperor in Rome 21/5 996 by pope Gregory V, Otto's cousin Bruno of Carinthia † 999.
He called himself Romanorum Imperator Augustus;

Otto was as a minor warded by his mother, Theophano = Theophanu, to 991
and by his grandmother, Adelheid, to 994,
but also archbishop Willigis of Mainz and Bishop Hildibald of Worms were advisers.
018 0972-1024
EMPEROR
1002-1024
Henrik II af Bayern = Henry II of Bavaria = Saint Henry of Germany = Heinrich von Bayern
* 6/5 972; † 13/7 1024 i Grone; ‡ Bamberger Dom;
s Duke Henry II the Quarrelsome of Bavaria = Heinrich der Zänker, c.920-955,
and Gisela of Burgundy, c.952-1007.
Great grandson of 014. Uncle to 017. Last male heir in the line of Henry I.

He was:
Duke Henry IV of Bavaria from 995 to 1005;
German king from 7/6 1002;
King of Italy from 15/5 1004;
Emperor from 14/2 1014 crowned by pope Benedict VIII 14/2 1014; lame from 1021;
Canonized 1146 by pope Eugene III. Saint's Day 13/7 or 15/7.

Kunigunde = Cunegunda; m c.998; * 975; † 3/3 1033; ‡ Bamberg; canonized 1200. Saint's day 3/3.
no issues
[9812 p.14,2]

 
Den frankisk, saliske slægt
Herefter overgår regentrollen til den salisk-frankiske slægt, der nedstammer fra Konrad I (008), men også har aner fra Ottonske slægt på kvindesiden.

Tyskland
Områdefordelingen i denne periode var i store træk således:
Tysklands område fra den danske grænse og sydpå var Sachsen, der gik til Hersfeld - Harzen; derefter Franken = Franconia til en linje på højde med Strassbourg. Syd derfor ligger Svabien, der på Alpehøjderyggen grænser til Italiens kongerige Lombardiet.

Østen herfor ligger fra nord Pommern = Pomerania - til en linje ca. ved Magdeburg; Lusatien og Meissen dækker indtil Böhmen, og sønden herfor kommer Bayern, der mod syd rækker til Alpehøjderyggen og grænser mod Italien ved områderne Verona og Friuli.

Vesten for Tyskland hedder områderne fra nord Nedre og Øvre Lotringen samt Burgund. Vesten herfor ligger Det Vestfrankiske Rige, hvor den sydlige del stadig kaldes Aquitanien. Bretagne og Normandiet mod Kanalegnene er ikke helt indgået i Frankrig endnu.

No. Ruling Names and remarks
019 0990-1039
EMPEROR
1027-1039
Konrad II = Conrad II of Franconia
Great-great grandson 015. * 990; † 4/6 1039; s of Count Henry of Speyer;
German king 1024-1039, crowned in Mainz 8/9 1024; crowned in 1026 in Milan as king of Italy.
Crowned by pope John XIX as emperor in Rome at Easter 26/3 1027, Knud den Store was present;
King of Burgundy from 1032/1033 when Rudolf III died; crowned at Payerne = Peterling;

Gisela of Swabia, m 1016; widowed Duchess of Swabia and of the Charlemagne line;
issue:
   Henry (020);
020 1017-1056
EMPEROR
1046-1056
Henrik III = Henry III = Heinrich III
Duke of Bavaria as Henry VI 1027-1041; Duke of Swabia as Henry I 1038-1045; German king from 1039; emperor 1046-1056;
s 019. * 28/10 1017; † 5/10 1056;
Gunhilde = Kunigunde; m(1) 1036; † 1038; d Knud den Store
no issues

Agnes; m(2) 1043; d William V of Aquitania and Poitou;
issues:
   Henry (021) * 1050;
   Conrad;
   three daughters;

1046 Synod at Sutri - two popes deposed and bishop Suidger of Bamberg appointed pope as Clement II;
Clement II crowned Henry III as emperor.
021 1050-1106
EMPEROR
1084-1106
Henrik IV = Henry IV
Duke of Bavaria as Henry VIII 1055-1061;
German king, elected 17/7 1053, crowned 1054 in Aachen, mother regent; emperor from 1084.
Crowned 31/3 1084 by pope Clement III
s 020. * 11/11 1050; † 7/8 1106; ‡ Speyer Cathedral 1111;

Bertha of Savoy, m(1), † 1087; d margrave of Turin;
issues:
   Henry, (022), elected king 1098;
   Conrad of Franconia (021a); * 12/2 1074; † 27/7 1101; Duke of Lorraine (Lower) 1076-1089;
       crowned king of Germany May 1087; crowned anti-king of Italy 1093-1101;
   Agnes (021b); unsure if the mother was Bertha or Praxedis. m count Frederick of Büren, grandfather to 025.

Praxedis of Kiev, m(2) 1089, adulterous according to [9495 p.61]; d Grand Prince Vsevolod of Kiev;

24/1 1076 Synod at Worms, when Henry IV declared pope Gregory VII deposed;
22/2 1076 Pope Gregory VII declared Henry IV deposed;
Jan/Feb 1077 the emperor's penance at Canossa;
1077 Duke Rudolf of Swabia elected anti-king; a second anti-king, Hermann of Salm, got no support;
Mar 1084 Henry IV conquers Rome, pope Gregory VII escaped to Salerno, † 25/5 1085;
1085 Guibert = Wibert of Ravenna appointed pope, anti-pope, as Clement III, who crowned Henry IV;
1095 First Crusade proclaimed at the Council at Clermont;
1105 Henry IV escaped to Cologne during an uprising led by Henry V, but was later imprisoned by his son in Mainz and forced to abdicate 31/12 1105.
Henry IV fled to Liège and with the help of the Lorraine forces he defeated Henry V 22/3 1106 near Visé.
021b Agnes von Büren = Agnes von Österreich
* 1070c;

Friedrich I von Staufen, Herzog von Schwaben; m(1) 1079; † 1105;
issues:
   Konrad III; (024); King 1138-1152;
   Friedrich II von Schwabien; † 1147;

Leopold III der Heilige, markgraf von Österreich; * 1073; m(2); † 1136;
issues:
   Adalbert; † 1137; m Hedvig, d Hungarian King Bela II;
   Leopold IV von Österreich; † 1141; became markgraf after father died; got the fief Bavaria;
   Heinrich II Jasomirgott; *1086; † 1177; became markgraf after brother died in 1114 and received also the Bavarian fief; 17/9 1156 lost Bavria and got Austria which was elevated to a duchy;
   Otto of Freising; provost in Klosterneuburg by Vienna, later abbot in Morimond Monastery; bishop of Freising 1138; wrote emperor Friedrich Barbarossa'a chronicle;
   Konrad; became bishop of Passau, later archbishop of Salzburg;
   Agnes; m Duke Vladislav of Poland;
   Gertrud; m Duke Vladislav II of Bohemia;
   Iulitta = Ita; m margrave William VI of Montferrat;
   Marie; m Emperor Manuel I Komnenus who died 1180;
022 1086-1125
EMPEROR
1111-1125
Henrik V = Henry V
s 021. * 11/8 1086; † 23/5 1125;
German king from 1099, crowned 6/1 1099.
Emperor from 1111, crowned 13/4 1111 by the pope in Rome;
Matilda, betrothed 1110, m 1114, † ; d Henry I of England;
no issues.
023 1075-1137
EMPEROR
1125-1137
Lothair III af Sachsen, king & emperor = Duke Lothair II of Supplinburg, Duke of Saxony;
Crowned by pope Innocent II in Rome;
† 1137; ‡ Königslutter Cathedral.
issues:
   Gertrude; m Heinrich der Stolze = Henry the Proud, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria.
      Issue: Henry the Lion.

From pope Innocent II Lothair received the Tuscan teritory originally belonging to countess Matilda. The pope also invited the emperor in 1135 to invade the Norman kingdom in south Italy, ruled by Roger of Sicily.

Lothair had given his son-in-law, Henry the Proud, the imperial insignia, but he was passed over by the princes of the electorate.

 
Henrik Løve = Henry the Lion
Henrik Løves bedstefader var Heinrich VIII der Schwarze af Bayern, -1126, gift med Wulfhill, ældste datter af hertug Magnus Billung af Sachsen.
Henrik Løves fader var Heinrich X der Stolze af Bayern, 1108-1139, gift med Gertrude d af den sachsiske hertug Lothar von Supplingenburg, 1075-1137. Herigennem arvede Henrik Løve hertugdømmet Sachsen.

Henrik Løve, * 1129, † 6/8 1195; m(1) 1148 Clementia, d Hertug Conrad af Zähringen, m(1) opløst 1162.
m(2) Matilda, d engelske kong Henry II.

Med sin første ægtefælle fik Henrik børnene Henrik, der døde spæd; Richenza, der døde spæd; og Gertrud, der blev m Kong Knud i Danmark.
Efter hr. Løves skilsmisse i 1162 får Henrik i det nye ægteskab børnene:

Richenza;
Heinrich, der m Agnes von Staufen;
Lothar;
Otto, der bliver kejser Otto IV;
Wilhelm, hvis ældste søn, Otto, bliver den første hertug af Braunschweig og Lüneburg.

I 1143 erobrede Henrik Løve området Polaben ved at besejre grev Heinrich von Badewide.

Ved Rigsdagen i Goslar 1154 gav kejser Friedrich Barbarossa Henrik retten til at udnævne biskopperne i Oldenburg, Mecklenburg og Ratzeburg. Henrik udnævner Evermod, † 1178, til den første biskop i Ratzeburg. Evermod var Præmonstratenser fra Vor Frues kloster i Magdeburg.

Henrik blev hertug af Bayern fra 1156 som Henrik XII, samtidig blev den østrigske del skilt ud af Bayern. År 1157 grundlagde Henrik München. Henrik mistede det bayerske hertugdømme i 1180.

Henry erobrede Lübeck fra grev Adolf II af Holstein og rekonstruerede 1159 Lübeck for senere, 1160, at overføre bispetronen fra Oldenburg til Lübeck. Samtidig fik han med aftaler med fyrster og handelsstormænd rundt Østersøen skabt grundlaget for Hansestaden Lübecks udvikling. Senere udnævnte han Brunsvig til sit regeringssæde.

I 1160 gjorde Henrik Schwerin til Mecklenburgs biskopsæde. Efter Valdemar I havde erobret Rügen, var der kampe mellem Danmark og Mecklenburg. Freden blev oprettet igen i 1171, da Valdemars søn, Knud IV (VI), blev gift med Henriks datter, Gertrud.

Henrik tog i 1172 på pilgrimstur til Det Hellige Land og besøgte undervejs den byzantinske kejser, Manuel I Komnenus. Efter tilbagekomsten gik venskabet med den byzantinske kejser over styr, og Henrik mistede sin magt. I 1180 blev hans sachsiske hertugdømme delt, så de to bispestifter Kölln og Paderborn dannede et nyt hertugdømme kaldet Westphalia, som kom under köllnerærkebiskoppen, mens Sachsens østlige del dannede et len, som en søn af Brandenburghertugen fik. Hertugdømmet Bayern gik til Otto von Wittelsbach, og biskoppen i Würzburg fik et hertugdømme i det østlige Franken.
 


Interregnum i perioden 1137 til 1138.

Slægten Hohenstaufen
Slægtens stamtræ kommer fra Henrik IV (021).

Ved slægtens indledende magtkampe mod pavestyret og andre opponenter foregik der også skift af nogle områders fyrster. Blandt andet blev Holsten givet til Adolf af Schauenburg. Brandenburg Mark var samlet af Albert der Bär, der også fik Nordmark. Meissen og Lusatien blev givet til Conrad af Wettin. Tilsammen indgik områderne i de konstellationer, der kom til at danne det fremtidige Preussen.

Senere, efter freden i Venedig i 1177, blev der igen rokeret internt. Sachsen blev opdelt, og Bayern formindsket ved at Tyrol blev udskilt, og der etableredes et hertugdømme Steiermark. Bayern gik til Otto af Wittelsbach. Henry Løve, der først havde samlet områderne, som faderen havde mistet, tabte dem igen, men beholdt efter nogle oprørsforsøg Braunschweig og Lüneburg, men endte med at være i komplet unåde hos kejser Frederik.

Fredrik II havde en ussel barndom, men fik en god uddannelse ved det sicilianske hof, der på det tidspunkt var et af de bedst udviklede lærdomscentre i Europa. Hans chancer for at blive kejser var ikke store, da Otto IV var ved magten i Nordeuropa, men da han blev afsat af Welfer-prinserne, så blev Frederik, da han var atten år, kejser i 1212, og senere efter paveskiftet til Honorius III i 1216 blev Frederik 22/11 1220 kronet i Rom. Betalingen herfor var et løfte fra kejseren om at tage på korstog. Dette forberedte han sig på i de næste par år.

No. Ruling Names and remarks
024 1093-1152
EMPEROR
1138-1152
Konrad III af Franken = Conrad III of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Franconia
s Frederick I, Duke of Swabia; grandson via d of 021; * 1093; † 15/2 1152; first of the Hohenstaufen emperors.
Duke of Franconia from 1115; German regent with brother Duke Frederick II of Swabia from, 1116;
elected anti-king from 18/12 1127, abdicated 1135; reestablished as king 13/3 1138 to 1152. King of Italy from 22/6 1128; emperor from 7/3 1138.
Joined the second crusade in 1147. Had to hurry back to Germany and never got the imperial crown in Rome.
issue:
   Frederick IV of Rotenburg, Herzog von Schwaben; † 1167; no issues.
   Heinrich; † 1152;
025 1152-1190 Frederik I Barbarossa = Frederick I Barbarossa, Duke Friedrich III of Swabia
Mother of Welf kin; nephew to 024. His grandfather count Frederick of Büren was m Agnes, d Henry IV.
* 1122; king from 9/3 1152, crowned at Aachen; king of Italy 17/4 1155; emperor 18/6 1155 crowned in Rome by pope Hadrian IV; king of Burgundy 30/7 1178; † 10/6 1190 drowned while bathing in the Saleph river during the crusade, which afterwards collapsed;

? ? m(1); divorced as adulterous;

Beatrice of Upper Burgundy = Beatrix von Burgund; m(2) 1156;
issues:
   Henry; 026;
   Frederick of Swabia; Herzog von Schwaben = Duke of Swabia; † 1191;
   Philip of Swabia; 027;

1165 Frederick got the anti-pope Paschal III summoned in Aachen and at Christmas time had Charlemagne canonized.

Frederick formed alliance with his cousin, the Welf Henry the Lion, who in return received the duchies of Saxony and Bavaria.
The duchy of Austria was recently separated from Bavaria, and was given to margrave Henry Jasomirgott of Austria, becoming extinct in 1246.
In 1273 the duchy was held by Philip of Swabia's grandson, Ottokar II, 1253-1298, m to the widow of the Babenberg kin, from the succession of which he gained Styria = Steiermark, Carinthia = Kärnten, Carniola = Krain (W part of Slovenia), Istria, Aquileia and Pordenone - the three last names being areas and cities in northeast Italy.
Ottokar II also founded Königsberg. King Ottokar was killed in the battle of Marchfeld near Wien on 26/8 1278.

The Peace of Venice 1177 in which the pope recognized the emperor as head of the imperial church, and Frederick recognized the pope's sovereignty in the Papal State.
Peace of Constance 1183 the Lombard states, cities and areas got their own election of magistrates.
[9768 p.33]
026 1190-1197 Henrik VI = Henry VI = Heinrich VII
s 025. King 14/8 1169; Actually rule began 10/6 1190; emperor 14/4 1191; † 28/9 1197; crowned emperor by pope Celestine III.

Constance of Sicily, m ?; heiress to the Two Sicilies; † 27/11 1198; d Roger II of Sicily.
   Crowned empress with her husband in 1191.
   Crowned empress together with her son in 1198 by pope Innocent III.
issue:
   Friedrich II (029), * 1194. Elected emperor before father died.

Henry organized the first fleet of the empire for the Crusade in 1195 after he had taken the cross at the diet at Bari. Empress Constance were appointed regent of the Two Sicilies. Henry died at Messina 28/9 1197.
027 1198-1208 Filip af Schwaben = Philip of Swabia, King of the Romans = Philipp von Schwaben;
s 025. * 1177c.; king and emperor 8/3 1198; † 21/6 1208;
Took the crown after his brother, but was not elected. Assassinated in Bamberg by Otto von Wittelsbach.
Irene Angelina; d Byzantine emperor Isaac Angelus II.
issues:
   Beatrice; m Otto of Brunswick; † 1212;
   Cunigonde; m King Wenceslas III of Bohemia; they got a son, King Ottokar II of Bohemia;
   Beatrice the Younger; m King Ferdinand III of Castile, 1217-1252; m 1219 in Burgos by bishop Maurizio.
      the couple got a s, King Alfonso X of Castile;
028 1198-1218 Otto IV Welf = Otto IV of Saxony = Otto von Welfen
ggs. 023; s Henry the Lion, nephew of Richard Coeur de Lion. * 1176-1182; king 9/6 1198; or 11/11 1208 after new election; emperor 4/10 1209; † 19/5 1213; elected king by the opposition to Philip of Swabia. The two kings were fighting in civil wars from 1198 to 1208.
029 1212-1250
EMPEROR
1212-1220-1250
Friederich II = Frederick II of Sicily = Frederik II ;
s 026. * 26/12 1194, † 13/12 1250 at Fiorentino, Apulia. King of Sicily 1197-1250; king 9/12 1212 and again 23/7 1215; emperor 22/11 1220;
On the crusade, Friedrich crowns himself as king of Jerusalem in 1229.

Constanza of Aragon, * 1179, m(1) 1210, † 23/6 1222; d Alfonso II,
    King of Aragon, Queen dowager of king Emmerich of Hungary;
issue:
   Heinrich, * 1211; of Sicily; joined a Lombard revolt and died as prisoner at his father's in 1242. He m Margaret of Austria and got Frederick and Heinrich, -1250;
[9753]

Yolande de Brienne = Isabella de Brienne, * 1211, m(2) 9/11 1225, † 8/5 1228; d Jean de Brienne, king of Jerusalem.
issue:
   Konrad IV = Conrad, 030; * 1228;

Isabella of England, * 1214, m(3) July 1235, † 1/12 1241; d king John of England.
issues:
   Henry; † 1253;
   Margaret; m Margrave Henry of Misnia; they got a s, Margrave Frederick, claimant to Sicily;

Friedrich had further nearly a dozen registered illegitimate children, one of them was Enzo = Enzio, king of Sardinia, † 1271/1272. Another son, Manfred, was king of Sicily and was killed at the battle of Benevento.
By Beatrice Lancia he had:
   (1) Constance who m John III Vatatzes, emperor of Nicaea; and
   (2) Manfred, -1266, who became King of Sicily and m(1) Beatrice of Savoy by whom he got
      (a) Constance, -1302, who m King Peter III of Aragon;
      and m(2) Helena Angelina of Epirus by whom he got
      (b) Beatrice who m the Marquis Thomas of Saluzzo.

Formed alliance with Philip II Augustus, king of France, towards the Welfs. At the battle 27/7 1214 at Bouvines SE of Lille the imperial forces of Otto IV were defeated by the French.
The first laws in German were issued 1235 - Landfrieden von Mainz.
030 1228-1254
EMPEROR
1250-1254
Konrad IV = Conrad IV
s 029. * 25/4 1228; † 21/5 1254;
Duke of Swabia from 1235; King of the Romans from Feb. 1237, but functioning from 13/12 1250; King of Sicily from 1251; King of Jerusalem.
Isabella, m 1/9 1246; d Otto II of Bavaria; (in [9753] she is called Elisabeth; she m(2) Count Mainard of Gorizia);
issues:
   Conradin, King of Jerusalem; became senator in Rome and was captured by Charles of Anjou, who had him beheaded 29/10 1268 in Naples.

 
Interregnum i perioden 1250 til 1273.

Forskellige fyrster af forskellige slægter regerede i perioder i interregnum:

Wilhelm af Holland; * 1228; † 28/1 1256; tysk modkonge fra 3/10 1247 mod Konrad IV. Wilhelm blev kronet i Aachen 1/11 1248. Han forsøgte at vinde kejsertitlen fra 1247 til 1256; greve af Holland som William II fra 1234, der var hans faders, Floris IV, dødsår.
Han havde som modkonge kun få støtter, indtil Konrad IV forlod Tyskland for Sicilien. Derefter fik Wilhelm støtte af Sachsen, Brandenburg og Rhinområdets forbund.

Richard af Cornwall = Richard Earl of Cornwall; * 6/1 1209; Earl fra 30/5 1227; † 2/4 1272; Romernes konge 1256-1271, kronet i Aachen 17/5 1257, m(1) Isabella of Pembroke; m(2) Sanchia of Provence.
Forsøgte at blive kejser i hele perioden 1257-1272; kong John Lacklands næstældste søn og broder til Henry III. Han deltog i korstog 1236-1240-1242; var et år regent i England, 1253, mens broder Henry III var i Gascogne.
Giftede sig tredje gang i 1269 med Beatrice af Falkenburg.

Alfons X af Castilien = Alfonso X = Alfonso the Wise = Alfonso the Learned = Alfonso el Sabio; * 23/11 1221; † 4/4 1284; konge over Castilien og Leon 1252-1284; aspirerede til kejsertitlen i hele perioden 1257-1272; hans moder, Beatrice, var barnebarn af kejser Frederick I.

Herefter indledes den lange Habsburgske periode.

Habsburgernes slægt
Omkring slutningen af 1100-tallet var de valgbemyndigede til kejservalget i Tyskland indskrænket til følgende seks:

Ærkbiskoppen af Mainz,
Ærkebiskoppen af Kölln,
Ærkebiskoppen af Trier,
Pfalzgreven,
eng.: Count Palatine,
Hertugen af Sachsen,
Markgreven af Preussen
og
Böhmens konge
.

Note om Pfalzgreven
Oprindelsen til begrebet skal findes i antikken. På latin var der en embedsmandsstitel, palatinus; embedet var en slags slotsforvalter for kejserens slot, palatium. Ordet blev i middelalderen også benyttet om officerer tæt på en fyrste, hirdmænd, og hvis disse var fornemme nok, adelige nok, blev titlen udvidet til comes palatinus, greve.

Mere specielt blev ordet brugt om en af de tyske fyrster, der deltog i kejservalget. Oprindelsen til dette var også et (eller flere) hofembeder ved de middelalderlige tyske hoffer. Hos Karl den Store og ottonerne var embedets indhold en slags hofjurist eller statsanklager. Han administrerede edsaflæggelser, forfattede anklageskrifter og holdt register over forhandlinger i retten.

Senere i middelalderen fik han større selvstændige beføjelser og kunne dømme i visse sager. Embedet kunne samtidig omfatte andre hofadministrative funktioner inden for regnskab og organisation.

Under de efterfølgende regenter, de salisk-frankiske og de saksiske kejsere, blev titlen givet til adelsmænd, der repræsenterede kejseren eller kongen i diverse provinser, en slags amtmand eller guvernør, der sørgede for lov og orden, skatteopkrævning og at profit fra kongelige godser blev returneret til kongen. De områder, hvor dette system særligt blev brugt, var Sachsen, Bayern og Lorraine.

Embedet forsvandt efterhånden alle andre steder i Tyskland end i Lorraine, og fra Frederick I's tid blev begrebet alene knyttet til fyrsten over Lorraine - på dansk blev det til Pfalzgreven og på engelsk til Countship Palatine of the Rhine = the Palatinate. Titlen har sporadisk været anvendt både i England og i Nordamerika i kolonitiden.

Området i Tyskland, der blev Pfalzgrevens, er delt i to. Det ene ligger på begge sider af Rhinen mellem Mainflodens og Neckarflodens udløb i Rhinen med hovedstad i Heidelberg. Det andet område ligger i Bayerns nordlige del omkring floden Naab, før den løber ud i Donau og derfra mod Böhmens skove mod øst. Efter middelalderen har områderne har omskiftelige fyrster og været del i religionskrigene omkring reformationen.
Note om Begge Sicilier
Begrebet Begge Sicilier eller den engelske betegnelse The Two Sicilies dækker over rigsdannelser for området Syditalien og øen Sicilien. Men betegnelserne passer kun inden for bestemte tidsperioder. Engelsk historie anvender udtrykket om perioden fra ca. 1450 til ca. 1850, mens historieskrivningen fra Danmark anfører tidsperioden som smallere brugt korrekt om årene 1815-1861. Se regentlisterne fra 1266 sidst i de franske lister. Mere omfattende er området behandlet i teksten om normannerne.

Områderne blev først forenet under samme styre af normannerne i det elvte århundrede, hvor Robert Guiscard og hans broder Roger I erobrede landene fra muslimerne, de byzantinske kejsere og lombarderne fra Norditalien. Normannerfyrsten Roger II, Roger Is søn, tog i 1130 kongetitlen af Sicilien og Apulien. Forårsaget af ægteskab mellem Roger IIs datter, Constantia, og Henrik, tysk prins af Hohenstaufenslægten, senere Henrik VI (026), tog denne slægt fra ca. 1180 kongetitlen over Sicilien til sig, og i 1194 blev Henrik VI kronet i Palermos domkirke. Særligt for Henrik VIs søn, Frederick II, kejser fra 1198 til 1250, blev området en betydelig brik i hans politiske liv.

Efter Hohenstauferne var uddøde, gik omåderne til den franske kong Louis IXs broder, Karl af Anjou = Charles af Anjou fra 1266, og han flyttede hovedstaden fra Palermo til Napoli og regerede med hård hånd indtil 1282, hvor et oprør - begivenheden kaldes for den Sicilianske Vesper - fik området løsrevet fra Anjouerne.

Områderne blev nu separeret, og den franske fyrsteslægt, Angevinerne, fik herredømmet over Syditalien, mens det spanske dynasti fra Aragonien fik øen Sicilien under den daværende kong Peter III, der var svigersøn til Manfred, der havde været statholder på Sicilien og var Frederick IIs søn. De siddende regenter i begge områder påkaldte sig titlen konge af Sicilien. Sicilien blev dog hurtigt delvis selvstyrende, for efter Peter IIIs død allerede i 1285 blev styret overdraget hans yngre sønner: Jakob fra 1285-1291 og Frederick fra 1291-1337.

De to områder blev igen forenet i 1443 under den aragonske konge, Alfonso V. Ved den lejlighed tog han den latinske titel Rex Utriusque Siciliae = king of the Two Sicilies. Samme titel benyttede hans to efterfølgende generationer: sønnen Ferdinand I og sønnesønnen Ferdinand II.

Fra 1504 var området under spansk overherredømme og blev regeret af vicekonger. Titlen blev genbrugt af regenterne op gennem århundrederne - for det meste Habsburgere og spaniere - og fra 1815 til 1861 blev det officielle navn på områderne Begge Sicilier = The Two Sicilies. Derefter indgik områderne i den nydannede italienske stat. Ved kundgørelsen om sammenlægningen den 12/12 1816 ændrede kong Ferdinand V sin titel til kong Ferdinand I, sammenlægningen havde kongen dog accepteret betingelserne for allerede den 12/7 1815. Der var tale om en østrigsk lydkonge.

--- Og nu retur til de tyske kejsere:
No. Ruling Names and remarks
031 1218-1291
(EMPEROR)
1273-1291
Rudolf I of Habsburg
* 1218, † 14/7 1291. Elected king 1273, the coronation took place at Aachen 24/10 1273.
Rudolf was never crowned emperor.
Gertrude of Hohenberg, m(1) 1245;
issues:
   Mathilda; * 1253; m 1273, † 1304; m Louis II of Bavaria;
   Albert; * 1255, † 1308; from 1282 Duke of Austria; later emperor (033);
   Catherine; * 1256; m 1279, † 1282; m Otto of Bavaria;
   Agnes; * 1257; m 1273, † 1322; m Albert of Saxony;
   Hedwig; * 1258; m 1270, † 1303; m Otto of Brandenburg;
   Clementia; * 1262; m 1281, † 1293; m King Charles Martel of Hungary;
   Hartmann; * 1263; † 1281;
   Rudolf II; * 1270; m 1289, † 1290; from 1282 Duke of Swabia and Austria;
Rudolf's two children were married to Ottokar II's two daughters before the fathers' conflict escalated and ended with the battle at Marchfeld 26/8 1278. Ottokar's allies were Brandenburg, Meissen, Thuringia, Bavaria, Poland, Silesia and Czechia, while Rudolf commanded troops from Austria, Styria, Switzerland, Hungary and Kumanovo (Macedonia).
(According to 9622's genealogies Rudolf only had one son, John the Parricide, 1290-1313)
When Rudolf died, three cantons in Switzerland prepared for independence and formed the original free Switzerland, and the date, when the news was learned, the 1st of August, is still the national day of Switzerland.
   Guta; * 1271; m 1285, † 1297; m King Wenceslas II of Bohemia;
   Karl; * 1276; † 1276;

Isabelle of Burgundy, m(2) 1284;
no issues;
032 1292-1298 Adolf of Nassau
Adolf was deposed 23/6 1298 by the electors. He was killed in battle with the new-elected, Albert I, at Göllheim.
Adolf had a good relationship with English Edward I and promoted him to imperial vicar of the Netherlands.
033 1255-1308
EMPEROR
1298-1308
Albert I of Austria = Albrekt I
s 031. Habsburg line. Elected King of the Romans;
He was an ally of France and in oppposition with the pope; later he changed his sympathies in order to obtain the imperial crown. From 30/4 1303 the church recognized Albert as king, and 17/7 1303 he accepted the terms from the papacy - that the papacy alone could transfer the imperial crown.
Albert I was murdered by a nephew 1/5 1308.

Elizabeth of Tyrol; m 1274;
issues:
   Anne; * 1280; m(1) 1295, m(2) 1310, † 1328; m(1) Hermann of Brandenburg; m(2) Henry of Breslau;
   Agnes, * 1281, m 1296, † 1364; m King Andras III of Hungary, later widowed and prioress at Königfelden.
   Rudolf III; * 1282; m(1) 1300, m(2) 1306, † 1307; King of Bohemia, Duke of Austria;
   m(1) Blanche of France; m(2) Elisabeth of Poland;
   Elisabeth; * ?; m 1306, † 1352; m Frederick of Lorraine;
   Frederick the Handsome = Frederick the Fair; (036); * 1289; m 1315, † 1330;
   Disputed king, defeated in the run for empire in 1322, Mühldorff Battle, prisoner of Ludwig (035);
   Leopold I; * 1289; m 1315, † 1326; m Catherine of Savoy;
      their issues were: Catherine, 1320-1349; Agnes, 1321-1392;
   Catherine; * 1295; m 1316, † 1323; m Charles of Sicily-Anjou;
   Albert II the Wise;(133); * 1298; m 1324, † 1358; m Johanna of Pfirt;
133 - Albert II the Wise
s 033; * 1298; † 1358;
Johanna of Pfirt; * ?, m 1324, † ?;
   Rudolf IV; * 1339; m 1357, † 1365; The Founder Duke of Austria; m Catharine of Luxemburg;
   Catharine; * 1342; † 1381; Abbess;
   Margaret; * 1346; m(1) 1359, m(2) 1364, † 1366; m(1) Meinhard of Bavaria; m(2) Johann of Tyrol;
   Frederick III; * 1347; † 1362; Duke of Austria;
   Albert III; (238); * 1348; m(1) 1366, m(2) 1375, † 1395; Duke of Austria;
   m(1) Elisabeth of Bohemia; m(2) Beatrix of Nuremberg;
   Leopold III; (239); * 1351; m 1365, † 1386; Duke of Austria, killed at Sempach;
   m Viridis Visconti;
034 1308-1313 Henry VII = Henry IV of Luxemburg = Henrik VII af Luxemburg
His brother, archbishop Baldwin of Trier, lobbied for his brother, who was elected king at Rense and reigned as Henry VII.
Crowned Rome, Lateran, 29/6 1312; † 24/8 1313 near Siena.
issues:
   John; m Elizabeth; d Wenzel II; the couple got the duchy of Bohemia which was transferred from Henry of Carinthia during the diet at Frankfurt in 1310.
035 1314-1347 Ludwig the Bavarian = Ludvig af Bayern, Wittelsbach
Excommunicated 1324. The Ghibelline party was his allies in Italy.
Crowned excommunicated in Rome 1328 by Sciarra Colonna, a layman. At Whitsunday he was crowned again by the pope, Nicholas V.
Edward III meets Ludwig in 1338, and Edward is appointed imperial vicar of the Netherlands, but denounces the title shortly after.
036 1289-1330
KING
1314-1330
Frederick II of Austria = Frederick the Fair = Frederik den Smukke
s 033; * 1289, † 1330; Anti-king.
Isabella of Aragon, m 1315;
issues:
   Frederick; * 1316; † 1322;
   Elisabeth; * 1317; † 1336;
   Anna; * 1318; m(1) 1328, m(2) 1336, † 1343; m(1) Henry of Bavaria; m(2) John of Goerz;
037 1346-1378 Charles IV of Luxemburg = Karl IV af Böhmen, Luxemburg = Wenzel
Father king John of Bohemia, mother Elizabeth; gs 034. Great grandson of 031.
Uncle Charles V of France brought him up from 1323.
Anti-king to 1346. King of Burgundy, crowned at Arles. Emperor from 1346, crowned in Rome at Easter 1355 by a papal legate.
The Golden Bull issued 1356 was an important electoral instrument stating the seven electors with the archbishop of Mainz as president.

Blanche of Valois; m; niece to Charles V of France.
issues:
   Wenzel Jnr., (039) King of the Romans, Duke of Bohemia;
   Sigismund, (042) Margrave of Brandenburg;
      m to Maria, d King of Poland and Hungary;
   John, Duke of Görlitz; † before 1411;
   Daughter m to Duke Rudolf IV Habsburg of Austria = Rudolf the Founder; he died when 26; no issues;
   Daughter m to Duke Albert IV;


After the death of Rudolf, the Habsburg kin was divided into two lines: the Albertine line and the Leopoldine
038 1349 Gunther of Schwarzburg anti-king;
-
238 - Albert III
s 133; * 1348, † 1395;
Elisabeth of Bohemia, m(1) 1366;
no issues;

Beatrix of Nuremberg, m(2) 1375;
issue:
   Albert IV; * 1377; m 1390, † 1404; Duke of Austria, m Johanna of Bavaria;
338 - Albert IV
s 238; * 1377, † 1404;
Johanna of Bavaria, m 1390;
issues:
   Margaret; * 1395; m 1412, † 1447; m Henry of Bavaria;
   Albert V; (044); * 1397; m 1421, † 1439;
039 1378-1400 Wenceslas of Bohemia = Wenzel IV af Böhmen, Luxemburg
s 037. He was never crowned in Rome. Taken into custody by cousin Jobst. Deposed 1400 for insanity and cruelty.
No issues.
239 - Leopold III
s 133; * 1351, † 1386; Duke of Austria and Styria; killed at the battle of Sempach;
Viridis Visconti, m 1365;
issues:
   William; * 1370; m 1401, † 1406; m Jeanne of Anjou;
   Leopold IV the Proud; * 1371; m 1393 † 1411; Duke of Austria and Styria; m Catherine of Burgundy;
   Ernest the iron Duke of Austria, (339); * 1377; m(1) 1392, m(2) 1412, † 1424;
      m(1) Margaret of Pomerania; m(2) Cymberga of Masovia;
   Elisabeth; * 1378; † 1392;
   Frederick IV of the Empty Purse; * 1382; m(1) 1407, m(2) 1410, † 1439; Duke of Tyrol;
      m(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate; m(2) Anne of Brunswick;
      M(19 = no issues; m(2) son Duke Sigismund of Tyrol, 1427-1496;
   Catharine; * ?; † 1391; Abbess;
339 - Ernest the Iron Duke of Austria
s 239; * 1377, † 1424; Duke of Austria and Styria;
Margaret of Pomerania, m(1) 1392;
no issues:

Cymberga of Masovia; m(2) 1412;
issues:
   Frederick III; (045); * 1440; m 1452, † 1493;
   Margaretha; * 1416; m 1431, † 12/2 1486; m Frederick of Saxony, 1412-1464;
   Albert VI; * 18/12 1418; m 1452, † 2/12 1463; Duke of Austria; m Mathilde of the Rhine;
   Katharine; * 1424; m 1447, † 11/9 1493; m Karl of baden, 1424-1475;
   5 more children; died in infancy;
040 1400 Frederick of Brunswick-Luneburg anti-king;
041 1400-1410 Rupert III of the Palatinate = Ruprekt af Pfalz
of Rudolf I's kin (031). King of Romans. Failed with nearly all political entreprises. † May 1410.
042 1410-1437 Sigismund of Bohemia-Hungary = Sigismund af Ungarn, Luxemburg
s 037. King of the Romans from 1411.
Maria; d King of Hungary and Poland.
issue:
   Daughter, m Duke Albert of Austria (044), founded the Austrian line who ruled Austria to 1918.
043 1410-1411 Jobst of Moravia anti-king;
bs 037
044 1397-1439
EMPEROR
1437-1439
Albert II = Albrecht II
s 338, gggs 033. * 1397; King 18/3 1438; † 27/10 1439 in Wien.
Elected King of the Romans, King of Bohemia and Hungary;

Elisabeth of Luxemburg, m 1421;
issues:
   Anne; * 1432; m 1446, † 1462; m William of Saxony;
   George; * 1435; † 1435;
   Elisabeth; * 1437; m 1454, † 1505; m King Casimir IV of Poland;
   Ladislaus; * 1440; † 1457; Posthumus King of Hungary and Bohemia;


Albert II can be reckoned as the first of the Albertine-Habsburg line now ruling to 1745, followed by the Habsburg-Lothringian line to 1871 and eventually - with interruption of the revolution in 1806 - to 1918.
045 1415-1493
EMPEROR
1440-1493
Frederick III of Styria = Friedrich III von Steiermark = Frederick V of Inner Austria
s 339, gggs 033. * 21/9 1415, King 6/4 1440; King Italy 16/3 1452; Emperor 19/3 1452; † 18-19/8 1493; Leopoldine line.
Later called Frederick the Fat; Duke of Inner Austria, German king (as Fr. V); emperor (as Fr. III), crowned in Rome 1452;
His brother was Albert VI of Austria, * 18/12 1418, † 2/12 1463.
Eleanor of Portugal = Leonora, * 1434, m 1452, † 1467; after the wedding she changed her name to Helena; d King Duarte = Edward; gd João I of Portugal;
issues:
   Christopher of Austria, * 16/11 1455, † 21/3 1456;
   Maximilian, * 22/3 1459, † 12/1 1519, (046);
   Helene, * 3/11 1460, † 28/2 1461;
   Cunegunde, * 15/3 1465, † 6/8 1520; m 1487 Albert the Wise of Bavaria, 1447-1508;
   John, * 9/8 1466, † 10/2 1467;
046 1442-1519
EMPEROR
1493-1519
Maximilian I Archduke of Austria-Burgundy; »The Last Knight«
s 045. * 22/3 1459 at Wiener-Neustadt, King 9/4 1486; † 12/1 1519 at Wels;
Elected king of the Romans 16/2 1468, crowned Aachen 9/4 1468; Joint rule of father and son for the next seven years;
emperor elect from 1493, as he could not reach Rome for a crowning because of the Venetian opposition.
Pope Julius II consented the election 4/2 1508;
6/2 1508 in Trent Cathedral a bit N of Lake Garda he took the title »Roman Emperor Elect« and began his reign 10/2 1508;

Mary of Burgundy = Mary the Rich; * 1457, m(1) 18/8 1477, † 27/3 1482 at Prinsenhof in Ghent, d Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy; The Valois dynasty;
Through his wife Maximilian became heir to the anti-French Burgundy and parts of the olde Lorraine areas in the Netherlands and along the French eastern borders.
issues:
   Philip (146), * 22/6 1478, † 25/9 1508; later Philip I the Handsome of Spain (146) through marriage 1496 to Juana of Castile = Joanna the Mad of Castile, 1479-1555, second d Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon & Castile; Died 1506 in [9495 p.139];
   Margaret of Austria (046a), = la tante de l'Europe; * 10/1 1480, † 1/12 1530; betrothed to Charles VIII of France, sent back later, as Charles wanted in stead to marry Duchess Anne of Brittany, then already married by proxy to Maximilian.
   M(1) 1497 crown prince Juan of Castile, 1478-1497, s Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon & Castile;
   M(2) 1501 Philibert of Saxony, 1480-1504;
   Franz, * 1481, † 1481;

Anne of Brittany, Duchess, m(2) 1490, the marriage was desolved later after pressure from France;

Bianca Maria Sforza of Milan, * 1472, m(3) 1494, † 1510; she was the niece of Duke Ludovico Moro of Milan [9495 p.139].

Maximilian had a further 13 registered children outside wedlock.
146 - Philip I of Spain = Philip I the Handsome of Spain
s 046; * 22/6 1478, † 25/9 1508; (1506)

Juana of Castile = Joanna the Mad of Castile; * 1479, m 1496, † 1555, second d Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon & Castile;
issues:
   Eleanor, * 24/11 1498, † 18/2 1558; m(1) 1518 King Manuel of Portugal, 1469-1521
         m(2) 1530 King Francis I of France, 1494-1547;
   Charles V (047), * 24/2 1500, † 21/9 1558;
   Isabella, * 18/7 1501, † 19/1 1526; m 1515 Christian II of Denmark, 1481-1559;
   Ferdinand I (048), * 1503, † 1564;
   Mary, * 17/9 1505, m 1522, † 18/10 1558; m Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, 1506-1526;
   Catherine, * 14/1 1507, m 1525, † 12/2 1578; m King John III of Portugal, 1502-1557;
047 1500-1558
EMPEROR
1519-1556
Charles V = Charles I of Spain from 1516-1556;
Archduke Charles I of Austria from 1519-1521;
Duke of Burgundy;
King of Castile and Aragon;
King of Hungary;
Known in France as Charles-Quint;
s 146, * 24/2 1500 at Prinsenhof in Ghent; King 28/6 1519; Roman Emperor 26/10 1520; King Italy 22/2 1530; German-Roman Emperor 24/2 1530; Abdicated 7/9 1556; † 21/9 1558;
He was raised by Margaret of York and later by his aunt Margaret of Austria (046a), after his father's death 1506;
Crowned king of Germany in Aachen 23/10 1520;
Crowned king of Lombard in Bologna 22/2 1530;
Crowned emperor in Bologna 24/2 1530 by pope Clement VII; the last emperor to be crowned by a pope.
Abdicated 23/8 1556 the imperial crown; had already 25/10 1555 abdicated the Netherlands;
He was confronted with Martin Luther from 1517 and forward.

Isabella of Portugal, * 1503, m 1526, † 1539; d King Manuel I of Portugal;
issues:
   Philip II of Spain, (147) * 21/5 1527, † 13/9 1598;
   Mary of Spain, * 21/6 1528, m 1548, † 26/2 1603; m Maximilian II, 1527-1576, (049);
   Isabella of Spain, * 1529, † 1529;
   Ferdinand of Spain, * 1530, † 1530;
   Juana of Spain, * 24/6 1537, m 1552, † 7/9 1573; m Prince John of Portugal, 1537-1554;
   Juan of Spain, * 1538, † 1538;
   Ferdinand, * 1539, † 1539;

Born outside wedlock:
Mother Johanna van der Gheenst:
   Margaret of Parma = Margaret of Austria, * 1521/1522, † 18/1 1586;
   Governor general of the Netherlands 1559-1567;
   m(1) 1536 Alessandro de Medici, Duke of Florence, * 1510, † 1537;
   m(2) 1538 Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma, 1524-1586, duke from 1547,
   issue: of m(2): Alessandro Farnese.

   John of Austria, * 24/2 1547, † 1/10 1578; mother unknown to me.
147 - Philip II of Spain
s 047, * 21/5 1527, † 13/9 1598;

Maria of Portugal, * 1527, m(1) 1543, † 1545;
issues:
   Carlos, Prince of Asturias, * 8/7 1545, † 24/7 1568;

Mary I, Queen of England, * 1516, m(2) 1554, † 1558;
no issues;

Elisabeth of France, * 1545, m(3) 1560, † 1568;
issues:
   Isabella, * 12/8 1566, m 1599, † 1/12 1633; m Archduke Cardinal Albert of Austria, 1559-1621;
   Catalina, * 10/10 1567, m 1585, † 6/11 1597; m Duke Charles Emanuel of Saxony, 1562-1630;

Anna of Austria, d (049); * 1549, m(4) 1570, † 1580; Philip's cousin;
issues:
   Ferdinand of Spain, * 4/12 1571, † 18/10 1578;
   Carlos Lorenzo, * 12/8 1573, † 30/6 1575;
   Diego, * 12/7 1575, † 12/11 1582;
   Philip III, (248); * 14/4 1578, m 1599, † 31/3 1621;
      m cousin Archduchess Margaretha of Austria, 1584-1611, (148);
   King of Spain as Philip III from 13/9 1598, King of Portugal as Philip II;
      Spain and Portugal shared the king from 1580-1640;
   Maria, * 14/2 1580, † 5/8 1583;

Philip had a further 4 registered children born out of wedlock.
048 1503-1564
EMPEROR
1558-1564
Ferdinand I = Ferdinand of Austria
s 146, * 1503, King of Romans 5/1 1531; Emperor 24/2 1556 after brother Charles' abdication; † 25/7 1564;

Anne of Hungary, * 1503, m 1521, † 1547;
issues:
   Elisabeth, * 9/6 1526, m 1543, † 15/6 1545; m Sigmund of Poland, 1520-1572;
   Maximilian II, (049), * 31/7 1527, † 12/10 1576;
   Anne, * 7/7 1528, m 1546, † 16/10 1590; m Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, 1528-1579;
   Ferdinand of Tyrol, * 14/6 1529, m(1) 1557, m(2) 1582, † 24/1 1595;
   m(1) Philippina Welser, 1527-1580; m(2) Anna Gonzaga of Mantua, 1566-1621;
   Maria, * 15/5 1531, m 1546, † 11/12 1581; m William the Rich, Duke of Cleves, 1516-1592;
   Magdalena, * 14/8 1532, † 10/9 1590;
   Katharina, * 15/9 1533, m(1) 1549, m(2) 1553, † 28/2 1572;
   m(1) Francisco III, Duke of Mantua, 1533-1550; m(2) Sigmund II Augustus, King of Poland, 1520-1572;
   Eleonora, * 2/11 1534, m 1561, † 5/8 1594; m Guillermo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, 1538-1587;
   Margaretha, * 16/2 1536, † 12/3 1567;
   Johann, * 10/4 1538, † 20/3 1539;
   Barbara, * 30/4 1539, m 1565, † 19/9 1572; m Alfonso II d'Este, Duke of Modena, 1533-1597;
   Charles of Styria, (148); * 5/6 1540, m 1571, † 10/7 1590; m Marie of Bavaria, 1551-1608;
   Ursula, * 24/7 1541, † 30/4 1543;
   Helena, * 7/1 1543, † 5/3 1574;
   Johanna, * 24/1 1547, m 1565, † 10/4 1578; m Francesco I Grand Duke of Tuscany, 1541-1587;
148 - Charles of Styria
s 048, * 5/6 1540, † 10/7 1590;
Marie of Bavaria, * 1551, m 1571, † 1608;
issues:
   Ferdinand, * 1572, † 1572;
   Anna, * 10/11 1572, m 1592, † 10/2 1598; m King Sigismund III of Poland, 1566-1632, king from 19/8 1587; † 30/4 1632;
   Maria, * 10/11 1574, m 1595, † 16/4 1621; m Sigismund II Bathory, 1572-1613;
   Catherina, * 13/3 1577, † 29/6 1595;
   Elisabeth, * 13/3 1577, † 29/1 1586;
   Ferdinand II, (052); * 6/7 1578, m(1) 1600, m(2) 1622, † 15/2 1637;
   Karl, * 17/7 1579, † 1579;
   Georgiana, * 22/3 1581, † 20/9 1597;
   Eleonora, * 25/9 1582, † 28/1 1620;
   Maximilian Ernst, * 17/11 1583, † 18/2 1616;
   Margaretha, * 25/12 1584, m 1599, † 3/10 1611; m Philip III, 1578-1621 (248);
   Leopold V of Tyrol, * 8/10 1586, m 1626, † 13/9 1632; m Claudia de Medici, 1604-1648;
   Constantia, * 24/12 1588, m 1605, † 10/7 1631; m King Sigismund III of Poland, king 1587-1632;
   Magdalena = Maria Maddalena, * 7/10 1589, m 1608, † 1/11 1631;
      m Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany, 1590-1621;
   Karl Josef, * 7/8 1590, † 28/12 1624;
248 - Philip III
s 147, * 14/4 1578, m 1599, † 31/3 1621;
King of Spain;

Margaretha of Austria, * 1584, m 1599, † 1611;
issues:
   Anna of Austria; * 23/9 1601; m 1615, † ?; m Louis XIII of France;
   Maria; * 1/2 1603; † 1603;
   Philip IV; (149) * 8/4 1605; m(1) 1615, m(2) 1649, † 17/9 1665;
   Maria Anna of Austria; * 18/8 1606; m 1631, † 13/5 1646; m Ferdinand III, (053),
   Carlos of Spain; * 15/9 1607; † 30/7 1632;
   Cardinal Ferdinand of Spain; * 16/5 1609; † 30/7 1632;
   Margareta of Spain; * 24/5 1610; † 1/3 1617;
   Alfonso; * 22/9 1611; † c.1611;
049 1564-1576 Maximilian II
s 048, * 31/7 1527, King 24/11 1562; Emperor 25/7 1564; † 12/10 1576;
Maria of Spain, * 1528, m 1548, † 1603;
issues:
   Anna, * 2/11 1549, m 1570, † 26/10 1580; m Philip II of Spain (147)
   Ferdinand, * 25/3 1551, † 1551;
   Rudolf II, (050); * 18/7 1552, † 20/1 1612;
   Ernest, * 15/6 1553, † 20/2 1595;
   Elisabeth, * 5/6 1554, m 1570, † 22/1 1592; m Charles IX, King of France, 1550-1574;
   Maria, * 27/7 1555, † 1555;
   Matthias, (051); * 24/2 1557, m 1611, † 20/3 1619;
   Maximilian, * 12/10 1558, † 2/11 1618;
   Cardinal Albert, * 15/11 1559, m 1599, † 13/7 1621; Archbishop of Toledo; m Isabella, 1566-1633;
   Wenzel, * 9/3 1561, † 22/9 1578;
   Friedrich, * 21/6 1562, † 1562;
   Maria, * 19/2 1564, † ?/3 1564;
   Karl, * 26/9 1565, † 1565;
   Margaretha, * 25/1 1567, † 5/7 1633;
   Eleonora, * 4/11 1568, † 12/3 1580;
149 - Philip IV
s 248; * 8/4 1605; † 17/9 1665;
King of Spain and Valladolid;
Elisabeth of France, * 1602, m(1) 1615, † 1644;
issues:
   Maria, * 1621, † 1621;
   Margareta, * 1624, † 1624;
   Maria Eugenia, * 21/11 1625, † c.1625;
   Isabella, * 1637?, † 1637?;
   Balthasar Carlos Prince of Asturias, * 17/1 1636, † 9/10 1646;
   Maria Antonia, * 17/1 1636, † c.1636;
   Maria Theresa, * 20/9 1638, m 1660, † 30/7 1683; m Louis XIV of France;

Maria Anna of Austria, * 1637, m(2) 1649, † 1696;
issues:
   Margareta Maria Theresa, * 12/7 1651, m 1666, † 12/3 1673; m Leopold I, (054);
   Maria Ambrosia, * 1655, † 1655;
   Felipe Prosper, * 28/12 1657, † 1/11 1661;
   Tomas Carlos, * 23/12 1658, † c.1658;
   Carlos II, * 6/11 1661, m(1) 1679, m(2) 1690, † 1/11 1700; King of Spain;
   m(1) Marie Louise of France, 1662-1689; m(2) Maria Anna of Pfalz-Neuburg, 1667-1740;
050 1552-1612
EMPEROR
1576-1612
Rudolf II
s 049. * 18/7 1552, King 27/10 1575; Emperor 12/10 1576; † 20/1 1612;
Crowned King of Hungary 1572 as Rudolf I; King of Bohemia 1575 as Rudolf II; Archduke of Austria 1576 as Rudolf V; emperor from 12/10 1576;
no issues; mentally unstable;
 
   The dukes and grand dukes of Mecklenburg from 1611 are listed in Saxony - a Danish text.
 
051 1557-1619
EMPEROR
1612-1619
Matthias
s 049; * 24/2 1557, Emperor 13/6 1612; † 20/3 1619;
Crowned King of Hungary 1608 as Matthias II; King of Bohemia from 1611; emperor from 1612;
Anna of Tyrol, * 1585, m 1611, † 1618;
no issues;
052 1578-1637
EMPEROR
1619-1637
Ferdinand II of Styria = Ferdinand II von Steiermark
s 148, bs 049; * 6/7 1578, Emperor 28/8 1619; † 15/2 1637;

Maria Anna of Bavaria; * 1574, m(1) 1600, † 1616;
issues:
   Christina, * 25/5 1601, † 21/6 1601;
   Karl, * 25/5 1603, † 25/5 1603;
   Johann Karl, * 1/11 1605, † 26/12 1619;
   Ferdinand III, (053); * 13/7 1608, m(1) 1631, m(2) 1648, m(3) 1651, † 2/4 1657;
   Maria Anna, * 1610, m 1635, † 1665; m Maximilian of Bavaria;
   Cecilia Renata, * 1611, m 1637, † 1644; m King Ladislaus IV of Poland;
   Leopold William, * 1614, † 1652; became regent of the Netherlands;

Eleonora Gonzaga; * 1598, m(2) 1622, † 1655;
no issues;
053 1608-1657
EMPEROR
1637-1658
Ferdinand III
s 052; * 13/7 1608, King 22/12 1636; Emperor 15/2 1637; † 2/4 1657;

Maria Anna; (248); * 1606, m(1) 1631, † 1646;
issues:
   Ferdinand, * 8/9 1633, † 9/7 1654; King of Bohemia, King of Hungary;
      and also Roman King from 24/5 1653 as Ferdinand IV;
   Maria Anna, * 24/12 1635, m 1649, † 16/5 1696; m King Philip IV of Spain, 1606-1665;
   Philip Augustus, * 15/7 1637, † c.1637;
   Maximilian Thomas, * 21/12 1638, † c.1638;
   Leopold I, * 6/6 1640, m(1) 1666, m(2) 1673, m(3) 1676, † 5/5 1705;
054 1640-1705
EMPEROR
1658-1705
Leopold I
s 053; * 6/6 1640, Emperor 18/7 1658; † 5/5 1705;

Margareta Maria Theresa; (149); * 1651, m(1) 1666, † 1673;
issues:
   Ferdinand Wenzel, * 28/9 1667, † 13/1 1668;
   Maria Antonia, * 18/1 1669, m 1685, † 24/12 1692; m Elector of Bavaria Max Emanuel II, 1662-1726;
   Johann Leopold, * 20/2 1670, † 20/2 1670;
   Maria Anna, * 9/2 1672, † 23/2 1672;

Claudia Felicitas of Tyrol; * 1653, m(2) 1673, † 1676;
issues:
   Anna Maria, * 11/9 1674, † 21/12 1674;
   Maria Josefa, * 11/10 1675, † 11/7 1676;

Eleonora Magdalena of Pfalz Neuberg; * 1655, m(3) 1676, † 1720;
issues:
   Joseph I, (055); * 26/7 1678, m 1699, † 17/4 1711;
   Christina, * 18/6 1679, † 18/6 1679;
   Maria Elisabeth, * 13/12 1680, † 26/8 1741;
   Leopold Joseph, * 2/6 1682, † 3/8 1684;
   Maria Anna, * 7/9 1683, m 1708, † 14/8 1754; m King John V of Portugal, 1706-1750;
   Maria Theresa, * 22/8 1684, † 28/9 1696;
   Charles VI, (056); * 1/10 1685, m 1708, † 20/10 1740;
      m Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, 1691-1750;
   Maria Josefa, * 16/3 1687, † 14/4 1703;
   Maria Magdalena, * 26/3 1689, † 1/5 1743;
   Maria Margaretha, * 22/7 1690, † 22/4 1691;
055 1678-1711
EMPEROR
1705-1711
Joseph I = Josef I
s 054; * 26/7 1678, Roman King 24/1 1690; Emperor 5/5 1705; † 17/4 1711;
Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg; * 1673, m 1699, † 1742;
issues:
   Maria Josepha, * 8/12 1699, m 1718, † 17/11 1757;
   m King Frederick Augustus of Poland, Elector of Saxony, 1696-1763;
   Leopold Joseph, * 29/10 1700, † 4/8 1701;
   Maria Amalia, * 22/10 1701, m 1722, † 11/12 1758; m Charles VII, (057);
056 1711-1740 Charles VI = Karl VI
s 054; * 1/10 1685, Emperor 12/10 1711; † 20/10 1740;
Elisabeth-Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; * 1691, m 1708, † 1750;
issues:
   Leopold John, * 12/4 1716, † 14/11 1716;
   Maria Theresa, * 13/5 1717, m 1736, † 29/11 1780; m (058);
   m Duke of Lorraine Francis I Stephen, 1708-1765, (058);
   Maria Anna, * 14/9 1718, m 1744, † 16/12 1744; m Charles Alexander of Lorraine, 1712-1780, b 058;
   Maria Amalia, * 5/4 1724, † 4/7 1730;
057 1742-1745 Charles VII = Karl VII af Bayern
hd 055; * 1697; Emperor 24/1 1742; † 20/1 1745; First of Wittelsbacher line:
Maria Amalia; * 22/10 1701; m 1722; † 11/12 1758; d (055);
058 1708-1765
EMPEROR
1745-1765
Francis I Stephen = Franz I Stephan
s 057; * 1708; Emperor 13/9 1745; † 18/8 1765;
Duke of Lorraine; Duke of Tuscany from 1737;

Maria Theresa, d (056); Queen of Bohemia and Hungary; * 13/5 1717, m 1736, † 29/11 1780;
issues:
   Marie Elisabeth, * 5/2 1737, † 7/6 1740;
   Marie Anna, * 6/10 1738, † 12/1 1789;
   Marie Karoline, * 12/1 1740, † 25/1 1741;
   Joseph II, (059), * 13/3 1741, † 20/2 1790;
   Marie Christine, * 13/5 1742, m 1766, † 24/6 1798; m Duke Albert of Teschen, 1738-1822;
   Marie Elisabeth, * 13/8 1743, † 22/9 1808;
   Karl Joseph, * 1/2 1745, † 18/1 1761;
   Marie Amalia, * 26/2 1746, m 1769, † 18/6 1804; m Duke Ferdinando of Parma, 1751-1802;
   Leopold II, (060), * 5/5 1747, † 1/3 1792;
   Karoline, * 17/9 1748, † 17/9 1748;
   Johanna, * 4/2 1750, † 23/12 1762;
   Josepha, * 19/3 1751, † 15/10 1767;
   Karia Karoline, * 13/8 1752, m 1768, † 8/9 1814; m Ferdinand de Bourbon of Spain, 1751-1825;
   Ferdinand, * 1/6 1754, m 1771, † 24/12 1806; m Maria beatrice d'Este, 1750-1829;
   Marie Antoinette, * 2/11 1755, m 1770, † 16/10 1793; m Louis XIV of France, 1754-1793;
   Maximilian, * 8/12 1762, † 27/6 1801;
059 1741-1790
EMPEROR
1765-1790
Joseph II = Josef II
s 058. * 13/3 1741, Roman King 27/3 1764; Emperor 18/8 1765; † 20/2 1790;

Isabella of Parma, * 1741, m(1) 1760, † 1763;
issues:
   Maria Theresa, * 20/3 1762, † 23/1 1770;
   Marie Christine, * 22/11 1763, † 22/11 1763;

Maria Josefa of Bavaria, * 1739, m(2) 1765, † 1767;
no issues;
060 1747-1792
EMPEROR
1790-1792
Leopold II
s 058. * 5/5 1747, Emperor 30/9 1790; † 1/3 1792; Duke of Tuscany 1765-1790 (See the Medici chronology;
Maria Luisa de Bourbon of Spain, * 1745, m 1765, † 1792;
issues:
   Maria Theresa, * 14/1 1767, m 1787, † 7/11 1827; m King Anton I of Saxony, 1755-1836;
   Francis II, (061)* 12/2 1768, † 2/3 1835;
   Ferdinand III, * 6/5 1769, m(1) 1790, m(2) 1821, † 18/6 1824;
      Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1790-1802;
      m(1) Luisa of Naples and Sicily, 1773-1802; m(2) Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony, 1796-1865;
   Marie Anna, * 21/4 1770, † 1/10 1809;
   Charles, (160); * 5/9 1771, m 1815, † 30/4 1847;
      Duke of Teschen inherited from uncle by marriage;
      m Henriette Nassau-Weilburg, 1797-1815;
   Alexander Leopold, * 14/8 1772, † 2/7 1795; Palatine of Hungary;
   Albrecht Johann, * 19/12 1773, † 22/7 1774;
   Maximilian, * 23/12 1774, † 9/3 1778;
   Joseph, * 9/3 1776, m(1) 1799, m(2) 1815, m(3) 1819, † 13/1 1847; Palatine of Hungary;
      m(1) Duchess Aleaxandra Pavlovna of Russia, 1783-1801; m(2) Hermine of Anhalt, 1797-1817;
      m(3) Maria Dorothea of Württenburg, 1797-1855;
   Marie Klementine, * 24/4 1777, m 1797, † 15/11 1801;
      m King Francesco I of the Two Sicilies, 1777-1830;
   Anton, * 31/8 1779, † 2/4 1835;
   Maria Amalia, * 15/10 1780, † 25/12 1798;
   John, * 11/5 1782, m 1827, † 11/5 1859; Prince of the People; m Anna Plöchl, 1804-1885;
   Rainer, * 30/9 1783, m 1820, † 16/1 1853; Viceroy of Lombardy;
      m Maria Francesca of Savoy-Carignan, 1800-1856;
   Ludwig, * 13/12 1784, † 21/12 1784;
   Rudolf, * 8/1 1788, † 23/7 1831;
160 1771-1847 Charles; Duke of Teschen inherited from uncle by marriage;
s 060; * 5/9 1771, † 30/4 1847;
Henrietta of Nassau, * 1797, m 1815, † 1829;
issues:
   Maria Theresa, * 31/7 1816, m 1837, † 8/8 1867;
      m King Ferdinando II of the Two Sicilies, 1810-1859;
   Albrecht, * 3/8 1817, m 1844, † 18/2 1895; Duke of Teschen, m Hildegarte of Bavaria, 1825-1864;
   Carl Ferdinand, * 29/7 1818, m 1854, † 20/11 1874; m Elisabeth of Austria, 1831-1903;
   Friederich, * 14/5 1821, † 5/10 1847;
   Rudolf, * 25/9 1822, † 23/10 1822;
   Maria Caroline, * 10/9 1825, m 1852, † 17/7 1915; m Rainer, 1827-1913;
   Wilhelm, * 21/4 1827, † 29/7 1894;
061 1768-1835
EMPEROR
1792-1806
EMPEROR AUSTRIA
1804-1835
Francis II = Frans II, Holy Roman Emperor;
Francis I, Emperor of Austria;
s 060; * 12/2 1768, Emperor 5/7 1792; Abdicated 6/8 1806; † 2/3 1835;

Elisabeth of Württemburg, * 1767, m(1) 1788, † 1790;
issue:
   Ludovika Elisabeth, * 18/2 1790, † 24/6 1791;

Maria Theresa of Naples, * 1772, m(2) 1790, † 1807;
issues:
   Marie Louise, * 12/12 1791, m(1) 1810, m(2) 1821, m(3) 1834, † 17/12 1847; m(1) Napoleon Bonaparte, 1769-1821; m(2) Graf Adam von Neipperg, 1775-1829; m(3) Count Charles de Bombelles, 1785-1856;
   Ferdinand I, (163); * 19/4 1793, † 29/6 1875;
   Marie Caroline, * 8/6 1794, † 16/3 1795;
   Caroline, * 4/12 1795, † 16/3 1799;
   Marie Leopoldine, * 22/1 1797, m 1817, † 11/12 1826; m Emperor Pedro IV of Brazil, 1798-1834;
   Marie Clementine, * 1/3 1798, m 1816, † 3/9 1881; m King Leopold of the Two Sicilies, 1790-1851;
   Joseph Franz, * 9/4 1799, † 30/6 1807;
   Caroline, * 8/4 1801, m 1819, † 22/5 1832; m King Friedrich August of Saxony, 1797-1854;
   Franz Karl, * 7/12 1802, m 1824, † 8/3 1878; m Sophie of Bavaria, 1805-1872;
   Marie Anne, * 8/6 1804, † 28/12 1858;
   Johann, * 30/8 1805, † 19/2 1809;
   Amalia Theresa, * 6/4 1807, † 9/4 1807;

Ludovica of Austria-Este, * 1787, m(3) 1808, † 1816;
no issues;

Caroline Augusta of Bavaria, * 1792, m(4) 1816, † 1873;
no issues;

 
Det tyske kejserrige opløses i 1806 og erstattes i 1815 af Det Tyske Forbund, der eksisterer 1815-1866, hvorefter der dannes et Nordtysk Forbund fra 1867-1871.

I 1871 bliver riget igen til et kejserrige under Hohenzollernslægten ved kejser Wilhelm I, 1871-1888. I 1888 bliver sønnen Frederik III kejser, men dør samme år efter at have regeret i 99 dage den 15/6, og pladsen udfyldes af hans søn, Wilhelm II, der er kejser 1888-1917. Han dør først i 1941.

Østrig
For at komplementere Det tyske kejserdømme, så medtages det tysk-østrigske område med de østrigske kejserslægter herunder.

Det østrigske kejserrige
No. Ruling Names and remarks
162 = 061 1768-1835
EMPEROR
1804-1835
Francis I, Emperor of Austria
Only the two children important for the line of succession are included here. See under no. 061 for all wives and children;
issues:
   Ferdinand I, (163); * 19/4 1793, † 29/6 1875;
   Franz Karl, (164); * 7/12 1802, † 8/3 1878;
163 1793-1875
EMPEROR
1835-1848
Ferdinand I
s 162; * 19/4 1793, † 29/6 1875;
Maria Anna of Savoy; * 1803, m 1831, † 1884;
no issues;
164 - Franz Karl
s 162; * 7/12 1802, † 8/3 1878;
Sophie of Bavaria, * 1805, m 1824, † 1872;
issues:
   Franz Joseph I; (165); * 18/8 1830; m 1854; † 21/11 1916;
   Ferdinand Maximilian; * 6/7 1832; m 1857; † 19/6 1867; Emperor of Brazil - executed;
   m Charlotte of Belgium, 1840-1927;
   Karl Ludwig; (166); * 30/7 1833; † 19/5 1896;
   Maria Anna Pia; * 27/10 1835; † 18/1 1840;
   Ludwig Victor; * 15/5 1842; † 18/1 1919;
165 1830-1916
EMPEROR
1848-1916
Franz Joseph Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary
s 164; * 18/8 1830; m 1854; † 21/11 1916;
Elisabeth of Bavaria; * 1837; m 1854; † 1898;
issues:
   Sophie; * 5/3 1855; † 29/5 1857;
   Gisela; * 12/7 1856; m 1873; † 27/7 1932; m Prince Leopold of Bavaria, 1846-1930;
   Rudolf; * 21/8 1858; m 1881; † 30/1 1889; Crown Prince, committed suicide;
   m Stephanie of Belgium, 1864-1945; the couple got a daughter, Elisabeth, 1883-1963,
   who m(1) Prince Otto zu Windischgrätz, 1873-1952; they divorced 1902 and she
   m(2) 1948 Leopold Petzneck, 1881-1956;
   Marie Valerie; * 22/4 1868; m 1890; † 6/9 1924; m Franz Salvator, 1866-1939;
166 - Karl Ludwig
s 164; * 30/7 1833; † 19/5 1896;
Margaretha of Saxony; * 1840; m(1) 1856; † 1878?;
issues:
   Franz Ferdinand; * 18/12 1863; † 28/6 1914; Assassinated in Sarejevo;
   m morganatically 1900 to Sophie Chotek von Chotkowa, 1868-1914;
   Otto; (167); * 21/4 1865; m 1886; † 1/11 1906; m Maria Josepha of Saxony, 1867-1944;
   Ferdinand; * 27/12 1868; m 1909; † 10/3 1915; m Bertha Czuber;
   Margarete Sophie; * 13/5 1870; m 1893; † 24/8 1902; m Duke Albert of Württemburg, 1865-1939;
   Maria Annunziata; * 31/7 1876; † 8/4 1961;
   Elisabeth; * 7/7 1878; m 1903; † 13/3 1960; m Prince Alois von und zu Liechtenstein, 1866-1955;

Maria Annunziata of the Two Sicilies; * 1843; m(2) 1862; † 1871;
no issues;

Maria Theresa de Braganza of Portugal; * 1855; m(3) 1873; † 1944;
no issues;
167 - Otto
s 166; * 21/4 1865; † 1/11 1906;
Maria Josepha of Saxony; * 1867; m 1866; † 1944;
issues:
   Karl; (168); * 17/8 1887; † 1/3 1922;
   Maximilian; * 13/4 1895; m 1917; † 17/1 1955; m Franziska zu Hohenlohe, 1897-1989;
168 1887-1922
EMPEROR
1916-1918
Karl I, Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary;
s 167; * 17/8 1887; † 1/3 1922;
Zita de Bourbon-Parma; * 1892; m 1911; † 1989;
issues:
   Otto; * 20/11 1912; m 1951; † ?; Dr. Otto von Habsburg; m Regina von Saxe-Meiningen, 1925-;
   Adelheid; * 3/1 1914; † 2/10 1971;
   Robert of Austria-Este; * 8/2 1915; † 7/2 1996;
   Felix; * 31/5 1916; † ?;
   Carl Ludwig; * 10/3 1918; † ?;
   Rudolf of Austria; * 5/9 1919; † ?;
   Charlotte of Austria; * 21/3 1921; † 23/7 1989;
   Elisabeth of Austria; * 31/5 1922; † ?;


Jørgen Marcussen
 
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