Richard Hakluyt - geograf, udgiver og redaktør
Tekstoversigt for 7. bind af Practical Navigations.




Forkortelser
H = Richard Hakluyt preacher
H.S. = Hakluyt Society (foretrukne udtale [Hacklit] JM)
ms. = manuskript
P.N. = Principall Navigations, 1589 eller 1598-1600
S.P. = Samuel Purchas (foretrukne udtale [Purkas] JM)


Indledning

Denne tekst giver oplysninger om de enkelte tekster i Richard Hakluyts 7. bind af værket Practicacl Navigations i 1598-1600-udgaven som genudsendt af HS i 1903-1905. De enkelte bind er registreret i Museets biblioteksbase.

Tilsvarende oplysninger for de øvrige bind findes på oversigtsmenuen her.

En konkordans mellem 2. udgaven (1598-1600) og H.S.-udgaven (1903-1905) findes i Hakluyt Handbook, vol. I, pp. xxv-xxvi.

En oversigt med kildehenvisninger til H.s arbejdsgrundlag findes i H.S. udgivelse 2. serie, vol. 145 : D.B. Quinn (edt.), 1974 : Hakluyt Handbook, pp. 378-460.
 
De i Hakluyts Practical Navigations indsatte kort er registreret i kortbasen. De kan findes med strengen "HAK-X-" i fritekstsøgning (feltet Regnr HS) eller under menuens nederste speciallister.



Practical Navigations of 1598-1600

Enkeltartikler eller tekstafdelinger i 7. bind i udgaven 1903-1905 fra Hakluyt Society
Made to the South and South-east quarters of the World and the Voyages undertaken for the finding of a Northwest Passages

Bind
Side
Titel
Forklaringer
Anno
VII
pp. 1-31
The voiage of the right honorable George Erle of Cumberland to the Azores, &c. Written by the excellent Mathematician and Enginier master Edward Wright.

Jarlen af Cumberlands ekspedition til Azorerne 1589. Afsejling 1589-06-18 fra Plymouth i skibene VICTORIE (tilhørende dronning Elizabeth), THE MEG, THE MARGARET og en lille karavel. Allerede i den første uge kaprede den lille flåde tre franske skibe på vej tilbage fra fiskeri på Newfoundland. To af skibene sendte de med fiskeladningerne hjem til England som priser, mens alle franskmændene blev samlet på det tredje og fik lov at sejle til Frankrig.

Efter nogle andre kapringer og kontrol nåede de i sigte af Azorernes E-ligste ø, St. Michael 1589-08-01. De begyndte allerede samme nat med kapringen af flere mindre fartøjer lastet med vin og olie. Beretningen fortsætter med ekspeditionens kapringer, besættelse af byer og mindre træfninger med de lokale, og hen på efteråret begyndte de returrejsen, der gik over Irland og kom endelig til Falmouth 1589-12-30.
Aktivitet 1598.
Trykt 1599.
VII
pp. 31-53
The valiant fight performed by 10. Merchants ships of London, against 12. Spanish gallies in the Straights of Gibraltar, the 24. of April 1590.

The valiant fight performed in the Straight of Gibraltar, by the Centurion of London, against five Spanish Gallies, in the moneth of April 1591.

A report of the trueth of the fight about the Isles of Açores, the last of August 1591. betwixt the Revenge, one of her Majesties shippes, and an Armada of the king of Spaine; Penned by the honourable Sir Water Ralegh knight.


Beretning om skibene der havde været på rejse til Venedig og Konstantinopel, og som på hjemvejen ved Gibraltar 1590-04-24 mødte 12 spanske galejer kommende fra Barbareskerne. Efter en sekstimers kamp vandt englænderne striden, og de fortsatte rejsen hjem og ankom først i juli måned.

Skibene var SALOMON, reder Barnam, London, MARGARET AND JOHN, reder Mr. Wats, London, THE MINION, THE ASCENSION, THE CENTURION, master Cordal, VIOLET, SAMUEL, THE CRESCENT, ELIZABETH og RICHARD, reder Mr. Duffield.
Teksten stammer fra William Wright, registreret i Stationers' Register 1590-07-24.

Den anden tekst er beretning om en tilsvarende hændelse året efter, hvor det engelske skib CENTURION overvandt 5 spanske skibe.
Teksten skrevet af John Hawes, 1591: The valiant and most laudable fight by the CENTURION of London against fiue Spanish gallies. Han var vidne til kampen.

Den tredje tekst skildrer også kampe mellem engelske og spanske skibe. Træfningen fandt sted 1591-08-31 mellem de spanske styrker og den engelske REVENGE, hvorunder dets chef Sir Richard Grenville omkom, og skibet sank.
Der er nogen tvivl om, hvorvidt den fulde sandhed er nedfældet i Walter Raleighs rapport fra 1591.
Aktivitet 1590 og 1591.
Trykt første gang i P.N. 1599.
VII
pp. 54-89
A particular note of the Indian fleet, expected to have come into Spaine this present yeere of 1591. with the number of shippes that are perished of the same: according to the examination of certaine Spaniards lately taken and brought into England by the ships of London.

A report of Master Robert Flicke directed to Master Thomas Bromley, Master Richard Staper, and Master Cordall concerning the successe of a part of the London supplies sent to my Lord Thomas Howard to the Isles of the Azores, 1591.

A large testimony of John Huighen van Linschoten Hollander, concerning the worthy exploits atchieved by the right honourable the Earle of Cumberland, By Sir Martine Frobisher, Sir Richard Greenvile, and divers other English Captaines, about the Isles of the Açores, and upon the coasts of Spaine and Portugall, in the yeeres 1589, 1590, 1591, &c. recorded in his excellent discourse of voiages to the East and West Indies. cap. 96. 97. and 99.


Tre tekster om
A) Tabene i den spanske Amerikaflåde i 1591, hvor der af 123 skibe usendt kun kom 25 tilbage.
B) Rapport om rejse med forsyninger til Azorerne, hvor engelske skibe patruljerede, og
C) en sammenskrivning af hollænderen van Linschoten om resultaterne af englændernes kampe i 1589-1591 mod spanierne ved Azorerne og langs de spansk-portugisiske kyster.
Teksten A) og B) har H. fået fra samtidige informanter.
Teksten C) er fra Lindschotens, 1592: Discours of voyages into ye Easte and West Indies.
Aktivitet 1589-1591.
Trykt 1599.
VII
pp. 88-102
A relation sent by Melchior Petoney to Nigil de Moura at Lisbon, from the Iland and Castle of Arguin, standing a little to the Southward of Cape Blanco, in the Northerly latitude of 19 degrees, concerning the rich and secret trade from the inland of Africa thither: Anno 1591.

The voyage of Richard Rainolds and Thomas Dassel to the rivers of Senega and Gambra adioyning upon Guinea, 1591, with a discourse of the treasons of certain of Don Antonio his servants and followers.

A briefe relation concerning the estate of the cities and provinces of Tombuto and Gago written in Marocco the first of August 1594, and sent to M. Anthony Dassel marchant of London.

Another briefe relation concerning the late conquest and the exceeding great riches of the cities and provinces of Tombuto and Gago, written from Marocco the 30 August 1594. to M. Anthony Dassel marchant of London aforesayd.

A briefe extract of a patent granted to M. Thomas Gregory of Tanton, and others, for traffique betweene the river of Nonnia and the rivers of Madrabumba and Sierra Leona on the coast of Guinea, in the yeere 1592.


Fem tekster om rejser til Afrika og beretninger om forholdene omkring Cap Blanco, fæstningen ved Arguin ses i dag ikke på et kort. Næste tekst om området ved floderne ved Senegal med nævnelse af en del byer. Tredje og fjerde del om indre dele nær ørkenlandet ved Timbuktu. Sidste tekst er et privilegium givet til købmand, der handler omkring Sierra Leone.
Aktivitet 1591-1594.
Trykt i P.N. 1599.
VII
pp. 103-132
Tekst A) The maner of the taking of two Spanish ships laden with quicksilver & the Popes bulles, bound for the West Indies, by M. Thomas White in the Amity of London. 1592.

Tekst B) A true report of the honourable service at Sea perfourmed by Sir John Burrough Knight, Lieutenant generall of the fleet prepared by the honor. Sir Walter Ralegh Knight, Lord warden of the Stanneries of Cornwall and Devon. Wherin chiefly the Santa Clara of Biscay, a ship of 600 tunnes was taken, and the two East Indian caraks, the Santa Cruz and the Madre de Dios were forced, the one burnt, and the other taken and brought into Dartmouth the seventh of September, 1592.

Tekst C) The firing and sinking of the stout and warrelike Carack called Las Cinque Llaguas, or, The five Wounds, by three tall Ships set foorth at the charges of the right honorable the Erle of Cumberland and his friends: Written by the discreet and valiant captaine M. Nicholas Downton.

Tekst D) The casting away of the Tobie neere Cape Espartel corruptly called Cape Sprat without the Straight of Gibraltar on the coast of Barbarie. 1593.

Tekst E) The letters of the Queenes most excellent Majestie sent by one Laurence Aldersey unto the Emperour of Aethiopia, 1597. Inuictissimo potentissimóque Abassenorum regi, magnóque vtriusque Aethiopiae imperatori &c.

og engelsk version:
To the most invincible and puissant king of the Abassens, the mightie Emperour of Aethiopia the higher and the lower.

Tekst A), B) og C) er beretninger om kapringer af spanske skibe 1592 til 1594 og har altså ikke meget at gøre med navigation eller udforskning. Teksterne har H. fra mss.

Tekst D) beskriver det engelske skib TOBIEs forlis på klipperne i Nordafrika lige uden for Gibraltar 1593-10-19. Skibet TOBIE var drægtig 250 tons og havde en besætning på 50 mand. Skibet forlod Blackwall 1593-08-16 med målene Livorno, Zante og Patras. Den 1593-10-16 havde skibet Cap Vincent i sigte, og den 19. oktober lod den urutinerede sejladskaptajn skibet fortsætte natten igennem med fulde sejl og kurs mod Strædet. 1½ time før solopgang gik skibet på grund på Nordafrikas kyst, og skibet forliste.

Kun 12 mand reddede livet og intet andet og begav sig på kysten af sted til fods for at finde spor af menneskelig aktivitet, hvilket de fandt dagen efter, hvor de overgav sig til muslimske styrker og i løbet af den kommende tid skiftevis agerede som disses slaver eller sad i fængsel. De blev senere fremstillet for kongen i Marokko og løskøbt der af engelske købmænd.

De kom hjem fra Afrika 1594-03-20 med ANNE FRANCIS af London, to mand, og to andre med en flamsk fløjte, en kom med MARY EDWARD af London, to døde i Marokko. Så kun 10 mand ud af 50 ovelevede en "inkompetent kaptajn".

Tekst E) er et brev til kejseren i Ætiopien om fri passage for en rejsende engelsk købmand Laurence Aldersey, dateret 1597-11-05.

Teksterne havde H. fra flere mss.
Aktivitet 1594-1597.
Trykt i P.N. 1599.

THE THIRD AND LAST VOLUME

of the

Principall Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation

made to the Northwest, West, and Southwest parts of the world
VII
pp. 133-140
Tekst A) The most ancient Discovery of the West Indies by Madoc the sonne of Owen Guyneth Prince of North-wales, in the yeere 1170: taken out of the history of Wales, lately published by M. David Powel Doctor of Divinity.

Tekst B) The offer of the discovery of the West Indies by Christopher Columbus to king Henry the seventh in the yeere 1488 the 13 of February: with the kings acceptation of the offer, & the cause whereupon hee was deprived of the same: recorded in the thirteenth chapter of the history of Don Fernand Columbus of the life and deeds of his father Christopher Columbus.

Tekst C) Another testimony taken out of the 60 chapter of the foresayd history of Ferdinando Columbus, concerning the offer that Bartholomew Columbus made to king Henry the seventh on the behalfe of his brother Christopher.


Tekst A) postulerer, at en waliser, Madoc, landede i Nordamerika 1170 og senere foretog endnu en rejse, hvori deltog nybyggere, der slog sig ned i Amerika, og et tegn på dette så forfatteren i, at spanierne have berettet, at visse folk i Amerika ærede korset, hvad de kun kunne have gjort, såfremt kristne havde været der før Columbus.

Tekst B) og C) , latin og engelsk version, beretter om Columbus' tilbud til kong Henrik VII skrevet af Columbus' søn, Ferdinand Columbus.

Ale tre tekster genoptrykt fra P.N.s første udgave.
Aktivitet 1170, 1488.
Trykt i P.N. 1586.
Genoptrykt i 1600.
VII
pp. 141-203

THE ENGLISH VOYAGES, NAVIGATIONS, and Discoveries (intended for the finding of a Northwest passage) to the North parts of America, to Meta incognita, and the backeside of Gronland, as farre as 72 degrees and 12 minuts: performed first by Sebastian Cabota, and since by Sir Martin Frobisher, and M. John Davis, with the Patents, Discourses, and Advertisements thereto belonging.

Alle teksterne i denne afdeling drejer sig om John Cabots opdagelser og udforskninger.

The Letters patents of King Henry the seventh granted unto John Cabot and his three sonnes, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sancius for the discoverie of new and unknowen lands.

John Cabot (ca. 1450-1500) og hans tre sønner fik 1496-03-05 deres kommission til at udforske det nyfundne land mod vest.

Billa signata anno 13 Henrici septimi.
THe king upon the third day of February, in the 13 yeere of his reigne, gave licence to John Cabot to take sixe English ships in any haven or havens of the realme of England, being of the burden of 200 tunnes, or under, with all necessary furniture, and to take also into the said ships all such masters, mariners, and subiects of the king as willingly will go with him, &c.

An extract taken out of the map of Sebastian Cabot, cut by Clement Adams, concerning his discovery of the West Indies, which is to be seene in her Majesties privie gallerie at Westminster, and in many other ancient merchants houses.

Hverken journaler eller kort, som John Cabot måtte have tegnet, eksisterer i dag.

A discourse of Sebastian Cabot touching his discovery of part of the West India out of England in the time of king Henry the seventh, used to Galeacius Butrigarius the Popes Legate in Spaine, and reported by the sayd Legate in this sort.

The foresaide Baptista Ramusius in his preface to the thirde volume of the Navigations, writeth thus of Sebastian Cabot.

Another testimonie of the voyage of Sebastian Cabot to the West and Northwest, taken out of the sixt Chapter of the third Decade of Peter Martyr of Angleria.

The testimonie of Francis Lopez de Gomara a Spaniard, in the fourth Chapter of the second Booke of his generall history of the West Indies concerning the first discoverie of a great part of the West Indies, to wit, from 58. to 38. degrees of latitude, by Sebastian Cabota out of England.

A note of Sebastian Cabots first discoverie of part of the Indies taken out of the latter part of Robert Fabians Chronicle not hitherto printed, which is in the custodie of M. John Stow a diligent preserver of Antiquities.

Of three Savages which Cabot brought home and presented unto the King in the foureteenth yere of his raigne, mentioned by the foresaid Robert Fabian.

A briefe extract concerning the discoverie of Newfound-land, taken out of the booke of M. Robert Thorne, to doctor Leigh, &c.

The large pension granted by K. Edward the 6. to Sebastian Cabota, constituting him grand Pilot of England.

A discourse written by Sir Humfrey Gilbert Knight, to prove a passage by the Northwest to Cathaia, and the East Indies.


Gilbert Knights tekst er inddelt i 10 kapitler for bevisførelsen for passagen mulighed i relation til autoriteter, fornuft, forsøg, omstændigheder, lokalbefolkning etc., og slutter med nedennævnte essay skrevet af Richard Willes. Willes gennemgår de muligheder for en passage til Kina, som der findes: Nordøstpassagen, som på grund af is og lavvandede områder har vist sig ufremkommelig, vejen syd om Afrika og vejen syd om Sydamerika, som begge domineres af Spanien-Portugal og endelig Nordvestpassagen.

Certaine other reasons, or arguments to proove a passage by the Northwest, learnedly written by M. Richard Willes Gentleman.
Aktivitet 1495-1576.
Trykt i P.N. 1589.
Genoptrykt i 1600.
VII
pp. 204-375
The first Voyage of M. Martine Frobisher, to the Northwest, for the search of the straight or passage to China, written by Christopher Hall, Master in the Gabriel, and made in the yeere of our Lord 1576.

The second voyage of Master Martin Frobisher, made to the West and Northwest Regions, in the yeere 1577. with a description of the Countrey, and people: Written by Master Dionise Settle.

The third and last voyage unto Meta Incognita, made by M. Martin Frobisher, in the yeere 1578. Written by Thomas Ellis.

The report of Thomas Wiars passenger in the Emanuel, otherwise called the Busse of Bridgewater, wherein James Leech was Master, one of the ships in the last Voyage of Master Martin Frobisher 1578. concerning the the discoverie of a great Island in their way homeward the 12. of September.

Notes framed by M. Richard Hakluyt of the middle Temple Esquire, given to certaine Gentlemen that went with M. Frobisher in his North west discoverie, for their directions. And not unfit to be committed to print, considering the same may stirre up considerations of these and of such other things, not unmeete in such new voyages as may be attempted hereafter.

A true Discourse of the three Voyages of discoverie, for the finding of a passage to Cathaya, by the Northwest, under the conduct of Martin Frobisher Generall: Before which, as a necessary Preface is prefixed a two-folde discourse, conteining certaine reasons to prove all partes of the World habitable. Penned by Master George Best, a Gentleman employed in the same voyages.

Experiences and reasons of the Sphere, to proove all partes of the worlde habitable, and thereby to confute the position of the five Zones.

A true report of such things as happened in the second voyage of captaine Frobisher, pretended for the discovery of a new passage to Cataya, China, and the East India, by the Northwest. Ann. Dom. 1577.

The third voyage of Captaine Frobisher, pretended for the discoverie of Cataia, by Meta Incognita, Anno Do. 1578.

A generall and briefe description of the Countrey, and condition of the people, which are found in Meta Incognita.


Denne gruppe tekster drejer sig om Martin Frobishers ekspeditioner mod nordvest for at finde en Nordvestpassage til Kina nord om Canada. Området Meta Incognita er, som tidligere omtalt en halvø på Baffinøen. Frobisher (ca. 1539 til 1594) foretog tre rejser, hvoraf den første begyndte 1576 og den anden i 1577 og den tredje i 1578.
Aktivitet 15761579.
Trykt i P.N. 1586. George Best-teksterne undtaget.
Trykt i P.N. vol. III, 1600.
VII
pp. 375-381
The Letters patents of the Queenes Majestie, granted to Master Adrian Gylbert and others, for the search and discovery of the Northwest Passage to China.

Patentet for udforskning af en Nordvestpasssage (og en Nordøstpassage) er tildelt Adrian Gilbert og hans associerede selskab samt disses arvinger. Det er dateret 1583-02-06. Patentet her nævnt har også betydning for de efterfølgende tekster om John Davis. Gilbert og Davis-familierne var naboer, og der er tætte kontakt mellem dem - se bl.a. forordet i Hakluyt Society's: "Markham, Albert Hastings. Introduction to The Voyages and Works of John Davis, the Navigator. The Hakluyt Society, No. LIX, London, 1880: i - lxxxiv".

Om John Davis rejser se nedenstående.
Aktivitet 1583.
VII
pp. 381-445
The first voyage of M. John Davis, undertaken in June 1585. for the discoverie of the Northwest passage, Written by M. John Janes Marchant, sometimes servant to the worshipfull Master William Sanderson.

The second voyage attempted by M. John Dauis with others, for the discovery of the Northwest passage, in Anno 1586.

Master Davis being arrived, wrote his letter to M. William Sanderson of London, concerning his voyage, as followeth.

The relation of the course which the Sunshine a barke of fiftie tunnes, and the Northstarre a small pinnesse, being two vessels of the fleete of M. John Davis, helde after hee had sent them from him to discover the passage betweene Groneland and Island, written by Henry Morgan servant to M. William Sanderson of London.

The third voyage Northwestward, made by M. John Davis Gentleman, as chiefe Captaine & Pilot generall, for the discovery of a passage to the Isles of the Moluccas, or the coast of China, in the yeere 1587. Written by M. John Janes.

A letter of the sayd M. John Davis written to M. Sanderson of London concerning his forewritten voyage.

A TRAVERSE-BOOKE MADE BY M. JOHN DAVIS in his third voyage for the discoverie of the Northwest passage. Anno 1587.

A report of Master John Davis of his three Voyages made for the discovery of the Northwest passage, taken out of a Treatise of his, Intituled The worlds Hydrographicall description.


Afsnittets tekster er om John Davis' (1550-1605) tre rejser mod nordvest for at finde Nordvestpassagen. De fandt sted i 1585, 1586 og 1587. Han beskrev Grønland og besøgte landet på sine rejser, som dog ikke havde succes med at finde vej rundt nord om Canada.
Aktivitet 1585-1587.
Trykt i P.N. 1589.
Trykt igen i P.N. vol. III, 1600.
VII
pp. 445-466
The discoverie of the Isles of Frisland, Iseland, Engroneland, Estotilaud, Drogeo and Icaria: made by two brethren, namely M. Nicholas Zeno, and M. Antonio his brother: Gathered out their letters by M. Francisco Marcolino.

For the more credite and confirmation of the former Historie of Messer Nicolas and Messer Antonio Zeni (which for some fewe respects may perhaps bee called in question) I have heere annexed the judgement of that famous Cosmographer Abraham Ortelius...


Historien om de noget kontroversielle brødrene Zeno og ders arktiske rejser i 1300-tallets midte og deres kort fremstillet af en efterkommer 1558. Megen spalteplads er brugt den sag. Se selv efter på nettet.
Aktivitet 1350-1400, 1558.
Trykt i H.s Divers Voyages 1582.
Trykt igen i P.N. vol. III, 1600.



Jørgen Marcussen
Opdateret d. 23.5.2017.
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