Samuel Purchas - geograf, udgiver og redaktør


Forkortelser

H = Richard Hakluyt preacher
HS. = Hakluyt Society (foretrukne udtale [Hacklit] JM)
PN. = Principall Navigations, 1589
SP. = Samuel Purchas (foretrukne udtale [Purkas] JM)
x=12345678 : Findes i MfS bibliotek
x=x : Findes ikke i MfS bibliotek


Indledning

Denne tekst er skrevet med baggrund i de udgivelser, som geografen og historikeren Richard Hakluyt samlede, udgav og delvis forfattede. Teksterne om Richard Hakluyt og mine indledende bemærkninger om sammenhæng og eftertid er samlede i artiklen om Hakluyts første bind af Practical Navigation, 1598.

Hakluyts "efterfølger" Samuel Purchas og hans 20-binds værk om samme emner som Hakluyts værk introduceres i artiklen (filen) Purchas1 her.

De i Purchas' Hakluyt Posthumus indsatte kort er registreret i kortbasen. De kan findes med strengen "PUR-X-" i fritekstsøgning (feltet Regnr HS).



Bind
Side
Titel
Forklaringer
Anno
VOLUME III
Cantayning the Navigations and Voyages of Englishmen to the Red Sea, the Abassine, Arabian, Persian and Indian Shoares, Continents and Ilands; with English Voyages beyond the East-Indies, to the Ilands of Japan, China, Cauchin-China, the Philipinae with others, and the Indian Navigations further prosecuted.

THE THIRD BOOK
Navigations and Voyages of English-men alongst the Coasts of Africa, to the Cape of Good Hope, and from thence to the Red Sea, the Abassine, Arabian, Persian, Indian, Shoares, Continents, and Ilands
(Fortsat fra bind 2)
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter VII.
Captaine William Hawkins his Relations of the occurents which happened in the time of his residence in India, in the Countie of the Great Mogoll, and of his departure from thence; written to the Companie. H.P.
III
§ 1 til 4
pp. 1-51
1) His barbarous usage at Surat by Mocrebchan : The Portugals and Jesuits treacheries against him.

2) His journey to the Mogoll of Agra, and entertainment at court.

3) The Mogols inconsistancy, and Captaine Hawkins departure with Sir Henrie Middleton to the Red Sea : Thence to Bantam, and after for England.

4) A briefe Discourse of the strength, wealth, and Government, with som Customes of the great Mogol: whivh I have both seene and gathered by his chiefe Officers, and Over-seers of all his Estate.


William Hawkins rejse efter hans afsked fra rejsefællerne på Socotra. Hawkins ankom til Surat 1608-08-24. Området og byen ligger ca. 250 km nord for Mumbai. Herfra rejste Hawkins til Agra, der ligger 175 km syd for New Delphi - begge byer ligger ved Yamunafloden.

I Agra havde han forhandlinger med stormogulen og fik tilladelse til, at englænderne kunne oprette faktorier i Surat, hvilket faldt sammen med ankomsten af tre engelske skibe i Surat. Hawkins tog afsked med Agra 1611-11-02 og rejste til Cambaya ved bugten af samme navn 250 km nord for Surat. Hawkins afsejlede 1612-01-18 per skib til Surat, hvor han forenedes med Henry Middleton, og de afsejlede 1612-02-11 mod Rødehavet.

Efter de havde forrettet deres forretninger ved Det Røde Hav, sattes kursen 1612-08-16 mod Sumatra med ankomst 1612-10-19, hvor de meget hurtigt gjorde sig færdige og afsejlede igen 1612-11-20, men gik på grund kort efter og måtte returnere og udlosse ladningen for at kunne stoppe de ved grundstødningen opståede lækager. Med godset inde igen blev der for anden gang afsejlet 1612-12-08 mod Bantam, ankomst 1612-12-21.

I Bantam forlod Henry Middleton konvojen, da han ikke kunne få tilstrækkelig god handel, og derfor måtte blive og bl.a. også få bundskrabet og kalfatret sit skib. Hawkins lastede sit gods i skibet SALOMON og tog selv med skibet THOMAS og de aftalte at følges ad på hjemrejsen. Afgangen blev 1613-01-13 og den 1613-04-2 ankrede de begge i Saldaniabugten nord for Capetown. Herfra sejlede de igen 1613-05-20 mod England. Rejsen sidste del er ikke berettet.

I § 4 berettes om mogulstaten, dens regering og administration, skik og brug, produktion og afgrøder med mere.

1608-1613
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter VIII.
The Voyage of Mr David Middleton in the Consent, a Ship of one hundred and fifteene Tuns, which set forth from Tilburie Hope, on the twelfth of March, 1606.
III
Ikke opdelt i §
pp. 51-60
Beretningen for rejsen, der begyndte 1607-03-12 (gl. eng. stil 1606), indledes med ankomsten til Saldaniabugten i Sydafrika 1607-07-16 med sætningen "... med at hele besætningen ved godt helbred, bortset fra Peter Lambert, der dagen før var faldet ned fra toppen af masten, hvilket han døde af."

Rejsens formål var at nå til Molukkerne og laste kryddernelliker i Indonesien. Skibet THE CONSENT og med lederen David Middleton ankom til Madagascar i september og 1607-11-13 så de Sumatra, og i begyndelsen af januar 1608 nåede de Molukkerne.

De indledte returrejsen ved anløb af Bantam 1608-05-22, og 1608-07-15 afsejlede de mod England, men hjemrejsen har Purchas vist ved at tilføje John Davis journal for rejsen (udeladt i denne udgave).

1607-1608
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter IX.
A briefe Narration of the fourth Voyage to the East-Indies, with the two good Shippes, the ASCENTION being Admirall, and the UNION Vice-Admirall, under the commaund of Alexander Sharpey Generall, and Richard Rowles Lieutenant Generall, with the discovery of the Redde-Sea in the ASCENTION.
III
§ 1-4
pp. 61-89
1) Relations of the said Voyage, written by Thomas Jones.

2) The report of William Nicols a Mariner in the ASCENTION which travelled from Bramport by Land to Masulipatan, written from his mouth at Bantam by Henry Moris, Sept. 12. 1612. The former and greater part is the same in substance with that of T. Jones, and therefore omitted.

3) The unhappie Voyage of the Vice-Admirall, the UNION outward bound, till shee arrived at Priaman, reported by a Letter which Master Samuel Bradshaw sent from Priaman, by Humphry Bidulphe, the eleventh day of March, 1609. written by the said Henry Moris at Bantam, Sept. the fourteenth, 1610.

4) The Voyage of M. Joseph Salbancke through India, Persia, part of Turkie, the Persian-Gulfe, and Arabia, 1609. Written unto Sir Thomas Smith.


Alle fire paragraffer i kapitlet under overskriften "Den fjerde rejse til Ostindien".

1609-1612
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter X.
The Voyage of Master David Midleton to Java, and Banda, extracted out of a letter written by himselfe to the Companie, this being the fifth Voyage set forth by them. H.
X
§ 1-3
pp. 90-115
§ 1: Their affaires at Bantam, Botun, Bengaia.

§ 2: Occurents at Banda; Contesting with the Dutch: Trade at Puloway, and many perils.

§ 3: His departure for Bantam, escape from the Hollanders, and returne home.


David Midletons rejse indledtes 1609-04-24 fra The Doownes i Kanalen og fik Kanarieøerne, Lanzarote, i sigte 1609-05-19. Tiende august var de nået til Sydafrika, som de efter proviantering forlod igen den attende august med kurs mod Bantam, hvortil de kom 1609-12-07. Afsnittet slutter med kursen sat mod Banda.

I afsnit to er scenen Banda, som ekspeditionen nåede 1610-02-05. Her beskrives forskellige vanskeligheder for at opnå en ladning krydderier m.v. Særligt forholdet mellem øboerne, englænderne og hollænderne beskrives, men kun set fra et engelsk synspunkt.

Afsnit tre beskriver afslutningen af opholdet i Ostindien og rejsen hjem. De nåede Saldania, Sydafrika 1611-01-21, hvor David Midleton fandt ud af, at hans broder Henry havde været der med østlig kurs 1610-07-20 til 1610-08-10. Og næste kapitel handler om hans rejse.

1609-1611
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter XI.
The sixth Voyage, set forth by the East India Companie in three ships; theTRADES INCREASE of one thousand Tunnes, and in her the Generall Sir Henry Middleton, Admiral; the PEPPER-CORNE of two hundred and fiftie, Vice-Admirall, the Captaine Nicholas Dounton, and the DARLING of ninetie. The Barke SAMUEL followed as a Victualler, of burthen one hundred and eightie, written by H. Middleton.
XI
§ 1-6
pp. 115-193
§ 1: The proceeding of his Voyage till hee came to Moha in the Redde Sea.

§ 2: Turkish treacherie at Moha and Aden with the English.

§ 3: Sir Henrie Midleton, and foure and thirtie others, sent to the Basha at Zenan. Description of the Countrey, and Occurrents till their returne.

§ 4: Indian shipping at Moha; Sir Henry Middletons escape from the Turkes, and enforsing satisfaction.

§ 5: Their departure from Surat, and what happened there with the Cambayans and Portugals.

§ 6: His going to Dabul, and thence to the Red Sea, and enforced trade with the Guzerates.


Afsejlingsdatoen er ikke nævnt, men ankomsten til Kap Verderne var 1610-05-01. Her blev det nødvendigt at fremstille en ny stormast til SAMUEL, da den, de havde haft fra England, var så elendig, at havde de fået dårligt vejr, ville den være gået over bord.
Resten af afsnittet nævner de daglige kurser og bredder rundt Sydafrika og op til Aden og ind i Rødehavet.

I afsnit 2 berettes om problemerne i Moha (Mocha) og Aden med tyrkerne, som de oplevede i november 1610. Den sidste del af afsnittet beretter om Henry Middletons tilfangetagning hos araberne.

Afsnit 3 er et sidespring med oplysninger om de tilfangentagne søfolks tur til Zenan. Afsnit 4 omhandler oversigter over de forskellige nationers handel og disses varer ind og ud af Arabiske områder. Også Middletons frigivelse og hans krav på kompensation for skade og spot fra tyrkerne.

Endelig fik de i afsnit 5 taget afsked med Arabien og sejlede gennem Bab-el-Mandebstrædet ud i Det Indiske Ocean på vej til Surat i Indien, hvor de havde nogle sammenstød med portugiserne.

I sidste og 6. afsnit sejlede ekspeditionen retur til Rødehavet og på grund af forkert årstid for vinde til at sejle mod Indien igen - de var da i begyndelsen af april, og den passende vind ville ikke indtræffe før midten af maj - så sejlede de endnu en gang ind i Rødehavet efter at have erfaret, at endnu et engelsk skib med pas for Arabien var gået ind til de troløse tyrkere. Afsnittet slutter med ekspeditionens returnering til indiske havne.

I næste kapitel behandles den samme rejse beskrevet af kaptajnen på skibet PEPPER-CORNE.

1610-1612
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter XII.
Nicholas Dounton Captaine of the PEPPER-CORNE, a ship of two hundred and fiftie Tunnes, and Lieutenant in teh sixth Voyage to the East-Indies, set forth by the said Company, his Journall, or certaine Extracts thereof.
III
§ 1-6
pp. 194-304
§ 1: Their comming to Saldania and thence to Socatora.

§ 2: Of Abba del Curia, Arabia Fælix, Aden and Moha, and the treacherous dealing of both places.

§ 3: Their departure from Moha to Assab, and after that, higher into the Red-sea, thence to the Socatora, and after to Surat.

§ 4: Many proud affronts of the Portugals. Disgusts from the Indians.

§ 5: Their departure to Dabull, Socatora, the Red-sea and Acts there.

§ 6: Their barter with the Indian ships, and departure to Sumatra.


Hele kapitlet beretter om den samme rejse og om de samme oplevelser, men set med Dountons øjne, hvor foregående kapitel var med Henry Middletons synsvinkel.

1610-1612
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter XIII.
The seventh Voyage; made in the GLOBE into East-India, set out under the Command of CaptaineAnthonu Hippon, observed and written by Nathaniel Marten, Master Mate in the said Shippe.
III
ikke opdelt i §
pp. 304-318
English Indian Voyages. Negapatan. Paleacate. Captaine Hippon qt Paleacate and Petepoly. Patane, Siam. Indian Ports traversed. S. Helena ill graduated.

Denne rejse begyndte i Blackwall på Themsen i skibet THE GLOBE 1610-01-03. Skibet ankom til Soldania i Sydafrika 1611-05-21. De fortsatte sejladsen 1611-06-06 og passerede Ceylon 1611-07-31, hvorefter de fortsatte op langs Indiens østkyst til bl.a. Petepoly og Masulipatan på ca. 15 grader og 57'.

Rejsen fortsatte til Bantam, der nåedes 1612-04-26. Derefter sejlads omkring Siam. Rejsen sluttede ved Lizard Point 1615-08-20.

1610-1615
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter XIV.
Extracts of Peter Williamson Floris, his Journall, for the seventh Voyage, (in which he went Cape Merchant) translated out of Dutch. He arrived in England 1615. and died two Moneths after in London.
III
§ 1-3
pp. 319-342
§ 1: The Voyage to Laleacatte, Petapoli, Masulipatan, Bantam, Patania, and Siam.

§ 2: Relation of strange Occurents in Pegu, Siam, Joor, Patane, and the Kingdomes adjacent.

§ 3: Their Voyage to Masulipatan; accidents during their long stay there, and their returne.


Samme rejse som foregående kapitel berettet ved uddrag fra Peter Williamson Floris' dagbog.

1611-1614
THE THIRD BOOK
Chapter XV.
A Journall of a Voyage made by THE PEARLE to the East India, wherein went as Captaine, Master Samuel Castelton of London, and Captaine George Bathurst as Lieutenent : written by John Tatton, Master.
III
§ ikke opdelt.
pp. 343-354
The ship called THE PEARLE, goeth for India. The Portugals treachery against the English. The English take a ship, and dismisse her. Fight between the Hollanders and Portugals.

Rejsen begyndte 1612-08-22 fra London, Blackwall, men på grund af modsatte vinde nåede de kun til Land's End 1612-11-05 og den 1612-11-27 nåede de Lanzarote. Teksten indeholder hovedsageligt positioner og kurser, men også lidt om samkvem med hollændere. De vendte hjem og krydsede nordlige vendekreds 1613-07-19.

1612-1613
Bind
Side
Titel
Forklaringer
Anno
THE FOURTH BOOK
English Voyages beyond the East-Indies, to the Ilands of Japan, China, Cauchin China, the Philipinæ with others, and the Indian Navigations further prosecuted...

THE FOURTH BOOK
Chapter I.
The eight Voyage set forth by the East-Indian Societie, wherein were imployed three Ships, THE CLOVE, THE HECTOR, and THE THOMAS, under the command of Captaine John Saris: His Course and Acts to and in the Red Sea, Java, Molucca's, and Japan with other remarkable Rarities, collected out of his owne Journall.
III
§ 1-9
pp. 355-489
§ 1: Their sayling about Africa, visiting divers Ilands thereof, and comming to Socatora.

§ 2: Occurents at Socatora, and in the Red Sea, with divers Easterne Letters, and the Great Turkes Patent and Seale.

§ 3: Their Adventures with Sir Henry Middleton, with other observations of those parts, and arrivall at Bantam.

§ 4: The Voyage of Captaine Saris in the CLOVE, to the Ile of Japan, what befell in the way, Observations of the Dutch and Spaniard in the Moluccas.

§ 5: Further observations touching the Molucca Ilands, and their proceeding on their Voyage to Japan.

§ 6: Their arrivall at Firando in the Habite, Rites, and Customes of the Japonians.

§ 7: Captaine Saris his Journey to the Court of the Japonian Emperour, and observations there, and by the way. His Letter to the King, and Japonian Priviledges to the English Companie.

§ 8: Accidents after his return to Firando, the setling of a Factorie there, departure for Bantam, and thence for England. King of Firandos Letter to His Majestie.

§ 9: Intelligence concerning Yedzo, delivered in the Citie of Edoo in Japan, by a Japanner who had beene there twice.


Hele dette kapitel beskriver EIC's ottende rejse til Østen, hvor de når frem til Japan. Rejsen begyndte 1611-04-18 ud for the Downes, passerede jævndøgnslinjen 1611-06-06 og nåede Sydafrika, Soldaniabugten 1611-08-01. De kom tilbage til England, Plymouth 1614-09-27. Henry Middleton døde på denne rejse.

1611-1614
THE FOURTH BOOK
Chapter II.
Observations of the said Captaine John Saris, of occurrents which happened in the East-Indies during his abode at Bantam, from October 1605. till Octob. 1609. As likewise touching the Marts and Merchandizes of those parts; observed by his owne experience, or relation of others, extracted out of his larger Booke, and heere added as an Appendix to his former greater Voyage; and may serve as a continuation of Master Scots premised Relations. To which are added certaine Observation of the said Author, touching the Townes and Merchandize of principall Trade in those parts of the World.
III
§ ikke opdelt i paragraffer.
pp. 490-519
Kapitlet har opdelinger i følgende:

Certaine Rules for the choise of sundry Drugges, as also from whence they may be had, as followeth.

Of all the chiefe and principall Townes for Trade in these parts, with their severall names and situations, and also what commodities they doe affoord, and what is there desired.

A note of requestable Commodities vendible in Japan, together with their prices there Current, being Masses, and Canderines, each Canderine contayning the 1/10 of a Masse.

A Memoriall of such Merchandize as are to be bought in Japan, and the prices as they are there worth.


Teksten inkluderer oplysninger om vægt og mål og mønt, skik og brug, handelsvarer til salg i Bantam og vigtigste handelspladser i Ostindien, Japan og Kina.

1605-1609
THE FOURTH BOOK
Chapter III.
Relation of Master Richard Cockes Cape Merchant, Of what past in the Generals absence going to the Emperours Court. Whereunto are added divers Letters of his and others for the better knowledge of Japonian Affaires, and later Occurents in those parts.
III
§ 1-3
pp. 519-570
§ 1: The Kings care, unreadinesse of ours, Japonian Superstitions, strange tempest.

§ 2: Lies of or on the Devill, and uproares about fire. Deceit of Nangasack. Suspitions, Feasts, Spanish Occurrents.

§ 3: A strange Comoedie acted by Kings and Nobles: Preventions for Night-cries and fires; Returne of the Generall from Court.


Kapitlet indeholder teksten fra en del breve skrevet fra og til japanere og englændere. En del oplysninger om skærmydsler mellem englændere og hollændere og spanske folk i Kina og Japan.

1613-1618





Jørgen Marcussen

Opdateret 2017-09-07.
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